Appendixes



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--> A— Samples of Nonhuman-Primate Environmental-Enhancement Plans This appendix is intended to give institutions examples of the structure and content of plans for nonhuman primate well-being but not actual plans. The structure and content of actual plans should address the species housed and the goals and aims of the institution. These descriptions have included many of the items in the checklist (Chapter 2), including processing of raw vegetables and fruit, manipulation, control, species-typical activities, enriched environments and positive daily interactions with care staff to reduce stereotypical and self-injurious behavior, food-rewarded learning, and complex sensory stimulation. Plan 1 - An expanded example - not a blueprint! The University of the Southeast Nonhuman Primate Environmental-Enhancement Plan Revised March 6, 1998 Introduction In accordance with the Animal Welfare Act of 1970 and in conformity with the policy of this institution, this document presents the nonhuman primate environmental-enhancement (EE) plan used at the University of the Southeast (USE) to promote the physical and psychological well-being of nonhuman primates

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--> (NHPs). The enhancement procedures have been developed to address the social needs of each species and to provide enrichment of the physical environment in order to encourage and enable expression of species-typical behaviors. The plan considers each species and each of the primary housing environments in use at USE. I. Goal and Aims A. Goal The goal of this plan is to ensure the health and well-being of each NHP at USE as elaborated in the following sections. This plan provides general guidance for USE in achieving the goal and is supplemented by standard operating procedures (SOPs) to address such events as the introduction of individuals to pair or group housing, removal of an individual from a social group, and nursery rearing of infants. Animals on research protocols sometimes require exemptions from the requirements of this plan (see Section V, ''Special Considerations"). When exemptions are required, they are justified by the principal investigator to the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC) which has sole authority to grant exemptions. In all cases, housing of animals used in research will be designed to minimize disruption of the animals' social and cognitive behaviors. Rhesus monkeys in the breeding colony are housed in harem groups in corn crib and corral housing that allows for expression of species-typical behaviors. The housing is enriched with various manipulanda and feeding opportunities, as described in the breeding-colony SOP. (Actual SOPs are not included in this document.) Marmosets are housed in pairs with nest boxes. They are easily stressed, so they are housed away from colony traffic areas and observed by familiar care staff. Scents are retained in the cage by rotation of the cleaning schedule, as detailed in the sanitation SOP. Thirty days before animals are to be transported to another institution, they are housed in facilities separate from the stable, closed breeding colonies. Exemptions to the requirements of this plan are like those for research animals and are elaborated in an IACUC-approved sale-of-animals SOP. Animals used for educational purposes are not excluded from this plan unless specifically exempted by the IACUC. Animals used for exhibition purposes are not excluded from this plan unless specifically exempted by their keeper with approval of the veterinarian. B. Aims The aims of this plan are to provide an environment suitable for the

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--> expression of a broad range of species-typical positive behaviors, including locomotion, social interactions, foraging, and manipulation. It also seeks to minimize expression of negative behaviors, such as aggression, self-wounding, stereotypical behaviors, and coprophagy. The plan recognizes and seeks to avoid stressful events, such as unpredictable activities associated with husbandry that can be interpreted by the animals as unpleasant. Colony routines for each species are spelled out in the species' SOP and include standards for minimizing interaction with unfamiliar persons; for clothing to be worn by care staff, research staff, and veterinarians; and for presentation of food treats. The plan seeks to provide the animals with an enriched environment in which each can exert some degree of control over its environment as appropriate for its species. Key to the effectiveness of this plan is the training of personnel in the natural history, behavior, and husbandry of the species and in the biomedical routines employed. Training and specific responsibilities and authorities of personnel are detailed in the training SOP. II. Pertinent Information A. Natural History [This section can be excerpted from the relevant sections of this report and from the references cited.] A separate section should be provided for each species housed at the institution. It might include the following: Rhesus Monkeys Habitat diversity with emphasis on aspects of the natural habitat that can be provided in captivity. Feeding habits with emphasis on foraging and variety of foods eaten. Social organization with emphasis on the type and size of social organization and movements of animals into and out of social groups. Cognitive and manipulative skills with emphasis on examples from the literature that can be adapted to the captive environment, such as swings, perches, forage, and objects to scent mark, chew, or destroy. Squirrel Monkeys Squirrel monkeys are arboreal primates that live in the middle-level canopy of rain forests, so cages should provide multiple levels of perches and at least one swing. These animals spend up to 75% of their time foraging through the forest litter, so food is placed on the cage floor after cleaning to force foraging. Puzzle feeders do not work. These animals are normally housed in social groups with the above environmental enhancements. Ideally, these animals would be housed in social groups of up to

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--> 20 animals in indoor-outdoor housing with perches, swings, and hide boxes. B. Records Documentation of each animal's history is important for providing for and assessing its well-being. USE's records are maintained in the office of the veterinarian and include the following information: Source of Animals Whether the animal was born at USE, purchased from a U.S. Department of Agriculture class A or B vendor, acquired from another institution, or taken from the wild. Rearing History Where the animal was born (wild or captivity) and whether it was reared in social groups (single or mixed-sex) or with peer groups. Housing History Chronology of types of housing and partners for each animal and holding rooms. Health and Behavior history Clinical and behavioral records. Behavioral profiles of each animal (e.g., regurgitates often, overgrooms when housed in pair group, or self-mutilates when single-housed) are maintained from the earliest age possible and updated on daily observation sheets during routine observations of the animals as a baseline for diagnosing the etiology of abnormal behavior and planning for remedial intervention. III. Social Interactions This plan provides for the social housing of each animal. Exceptions to the policy that each animal shall be socially housed are detailed in Section V, "Special Considerations." All animals in single cages are evaluated for their potential for pair or group housing. The position of USE is that all animals shall be socially housed, unless exempted under Section V. Strategies for the introduction of animals to pair or group housing and for the removal of animals from pair or group housing (e.g., because of sickness, aggression, or research protocols) are specified in the group housing SOP. When animals are required to be separated and reunited repeatedly, consideration is given to the stress caused by removing an animal from a social group and the risks posed by repeatedly re-establishing group formation. These considerations and protocols are provided in the group housing SOP. Animals housed singly benefit from visual, auditory, and olfactory con-

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--> tact with nearby conspecifics. Unless exempted under Section V and approved by the IACUC, all single-housed animals will be housed to maximize the beneficial aspects of this sensory stimulation. Some of the institution's NHPs benefit from frequent, positive human contact. The degree of this interaction varies by species and history and interaction is conducted with due consideration to the risk to humans. Guidelines for positive human interaction (e.g., giving treats and making positive facial gestures) with the NHP are detailed in the human interaction SOP. Additional USE policies regarding human interaction with macaques are provided in the institution's occupational health and safety program. USE maintains a small chimpanzee breeding colony in which nursery rearing becomes necessary when infants are rejected by their mother and surrogate rearing is not possible. The nursery rearing SOP provides the details for these procedures and discusses the value of the use of other species (such as dogs) for comfort and social interaction of infants. All animals (socially and singly housed) will be provided the opportunity to perch. IV. Environmental Enrichment A. Single-Housed Rhesus Monkeys. Cage complexities will be provided for individually housed primates. Exemptions for scientific reasons will be granted in accordance with Section V, "Special Considerations", and with 9 CFR "Animal Welfare"; "Part 3—Standards''; §3.81. An animal will receive different enrichment devices every 2 weeks because of randomness in the cage change schedule. Animal care staff will be responsible for the implementation of the nonsocial program. The cage complexities may include: Toys: Kong®, Plaque Attackers®, Tug-A-Toys®, Nyla-Rings®, solid vinyl rings and tugs, grooved vinyl dumbbells, flexible PVC tubing, and Boomer® balls. Food enrichment: Artificial fleece boards, artificial turf boards, puzzle feeders, PVC knots filled with banana pellets, shakers, fruity rawhides, and treats given by authorized personnel. Each animal will have at least one toy inside and one toy or food device outside the primary enclosure. Food enrichment will be provided at least two times each week unless the animal is exempted from this type of enrichment. Special consideration for environmental enrichment will be given to specific individuals or groups as needed:

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--> Infants and juveniles, whose social development will be carefully monitored. Animals that cannot be socially housed (especially those held in environments that limit visual, auditory, tactile, or olfactory interaction with conspecifics or members of other compatible species), for which enrichment strategies will be specially tailored. Nonhuman primates in psychological distress, as determined by behavior or appearance. Nonhuman primates participating in approved animal study protocols that require restricted activity for longer than 12 hours. B. Pair- and Group-Housed Squirrel Monkeys Environmental enhancement for pair- and group-housed squirrel monkeys is necessary but sometimes difficult. Squirrel monkeys are vastly different from macaques in their desire to manipulate toys and to maintain an interest in novel aspects of their environment. The procedures adopted by USE consider the natural behaviors of squirrel monkeys and the special husbandry procedures that they require. Perches, Swings, and Cage Complexities Perches. Squirrel monkeys are arboreal primates and typically spend most of their time in middle-level canopy of the South American rain forest. The genus can make maximal use of three-dimensional space. USE provides each cage with multiple levels of perches, which were determined from reference to the literature and by testing to be optimal for the species. (Scientific articles on the husbandry and housing of squirrel monkeys by USE veterinarians and behavioral scientists have contributed to the well-being of this species.) Swings. Given the squirrel monkey's arboreal abilities, each social cage is provided with at least one swing consisting of plastic chain, looped PVC pipe, or other similar material. Hide or nest boxes. Direct eye contact is an aggressive encounter for squirrel monkeys (as it is for macaques and many other species). USE provides "hide boxes" in each social cage to allow a submissive animal refuge from an aggressive animal. The use of hide boxes has been shown to reduce the frequency of fight-related injuries in Saimiri (see appended abstract published by USE scientists). Food Forage for food. Squirrel monkeys are foragers that spend up to 75% of their time moving through the forest eating. To encourage foraging in indoor-outdoor social cages, food is scattered in the litter on the cage or pen floor after daily cleaning. This forces the animals to move through the cage to select their food. Squirrel monkeys do not use puzzle feeders and grooming devices, which do not simulate food presentation for this species.

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--> Variety of food items. In all caging situations, a number of different food items are used to vary the diet of the animals. In addition to a commercial monkey chow, squirrel monkeys are fed vegetables and fruits (based on seasonal availability and including bell peppers, string beans, yellow squash, yams, and grapes) on a rotating schedule that is documented on the daily room-check sheets. Peanuts and mealworms are used as special treats to aid the animal care personnel in observing the animals. This task is indicated on the daily room-check sheets. Fruits and vegetables are fed whole, which increases the processing time required to open or shuck the item. Contact with Caregivers Daily observation. Using peanuts and mealworms, the animal care personnel interact positively with the squirrel monkeys at least twice a day. These daily observations allow the animals to become accustomed to the caregivers and allow the caregivers to identify developing physical or behavioral problems. Food items. Food items are handed out by the caregivers twice daily. This positive interaction allows the animals to habituate to the caregivers and allows the caregivers to interact with the animals in a positive, non-threatening manner. V. Special Considerations A. Protocol-Restricted Activities All NHPs at the institution are included in this plan unless excluded for cause by the IACUC or for health or well-being reasons by the attending veterinarian. Some research at USE requires such exclusions, including sleep and vision research in which animals are restrained in chairs for up to 4 hours a day 3 days a week when the electrical activity of the brain is monitored. The procedures for placement of electrodes are detailed in each investigator's protocol and outlined in the electrophysiology SOP. Chair restraint is discussed in the restraint SOP. When the protocol permits, these animals are pair-housed. Such animals are reintroduced to their cagemates after each period of restraint. Replacement of chair restraint with tethering is encouraged by USE and practiced by some investigators. This permits the animal to remain in its home cage but generally does not permit pair housing. B. Exemptions from Social Housing All animals housed in nonsocial situations require an exemption from this plan. The social housing exemptions SOP discusses each exemption. Animals undergoing clinical treatment may be temporarily exempted from social housing at the discretion of the attending veterinarian. Such exemptions will be reviewed every 30 days, and an exemption will terminate when the animal finishes treatment. Long-term exemption from social hous-

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--> ing may be authorized by the attending veterinarian for the following reasons: Permanent Clinical Debilitation Due to Extreme Injury or Old Age. It is sometimes necessary to separate chronically sick or debilitated animals from social housing. These animals are maintained in individual cages with multiple perches and varied foods, and have frequent contact with familiar caregivers. An "Exemption from Social Housing" form, signed by the attending veterinarian, is required. Contagious Disease. When an entire group or room of monkeys are known or believed to have been exposed to an infectious agent, the entire group will be kept intact and under quarantine during the diagnosis, treatment, and control of the problem unless otherwise required by the attending veterinarian. The procedure is specified in the quarantine SOP. Aggression. A monkey that is found to be hyperaggressive or vicious within their social group will be relocated to another social group if possible. If the animal is a danger to other animals, it will be placed in an individual cage on the orders of the attending veterinarian. An "Exemption from Social Housing" form, signed by the attending veterinarian, is required. Social Incompatibility. This category applies to animals that cannot defend themselves from the normal dominance-related aggression that occurs in the species. Removal of such an animal from the social group risks being unable to reintroduce it to the same group or introduce it to another social group and is a course of last resort. Environmental enrichments—including provisions for the animal to hide in boxes, culverts, and behind walls—are often useful in alleviating this condition An "Exemption from Social Housing" form, signed by the attending veterinarian, is required. Requirements of a Research Protocol. Exemptions from social housing are sometimes necessary to carry out a research protocol. This exemption is made for such protocols approved by the IACUC. The animals are separated from their social group for the time necessary to conduct the study. Approved protocols are monitored on an annual basis. Other Conditions. Other circumstances requiring single housing that have not been defined occasionally arise. A decision to remove an animal from its social or pair group is based on the professional judgment of the attending veterinarian in consultation with the investigator (if appropriate) and the IACUC. An "Exemption from Social Housing" form, signed by the attending veterinarian, is required.

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--> VI. Monitoring. Records Recordkeeping is the cornerstone of USE's Environmental Enhancement Plan. Health checks Daily health checks are performed by caregivers trained to recognize normal and abnormal behaviors of the species housed and to detect signs of illness. Daily logs are used to record abnormal behaviors, changes in the amount of activity, and signs of illness. [A list of normal and abnormal behaviors can be developed for each species from the discussions in Chapters 5–9.] Responses to routine practices Alterations in behavior resulting from routine husbandry practices are noted. These often suggest early signs of illness or stress. Plotting of these behaviors over time assists the veterinarian in initiating changes in caging, personnel, or treatments at an early stage. Training Many NHPs respond favorably to food reward. Such training is a valuable adjunct in administering medication, performing clinical examinations, or simply observing the animal. Changes in the animals' response to food reward are noted on the daily log. Remediation Both successful and unsuccessful remediation strategies are documented. An example of successful remediation is the enrichment of a single-caged rhesus monkey environment that resulted in alleviation of hair loss caused by overgrooming. An example of an unsuccessful attempt at remediation is the failure to reintroduce an old male squirrel monkey to a social group after an extended separation. These and other remediation efforts are documented in each animal's clinical records and summarized in the remediation file. SOPs for remediation are developed for all major strategies, and new SOPs are added as needed. Existing SOPs describe remediation strategies for introductions and reintroductions of rhesus and squirrel monkeys, marmosets, and chimpanzees; enrichment for rhesus and squirrel monkeys, marmosets, and chimpanzees in single and social housing; pair housing of male squirrel monkeys; aggression; infant nonsocial rearing; coprophagy; and endpoint criteria for deciding when euthanasia is the most humane option.

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--> Assessment of the Plan The plan is judged to be successful if Individual animals are judged to be in a state of well-being or the cause of distress or atypical behavior in any animal can be shown to be derived from antecedent conditions or from an approved research protocol. When antecedent conditions apply, practices are identified and implemented for the benefit of future animals and facility records exist for the presence, etiology, and remediation or accommodation of observed cases of lack of well-being. Plan 2 - A short version. Species of nonhuman primates that have been observed to live in social groups in a free-ranging state are being socially housed in their primary enclosure In a manner similar to their natural social structure. In accord with generally accepted practices described in the literature for captive members of this species. Each animal is maintained in a pair or group if it has been determined to be compatible with other animals by regular behavioral observations and approved by the attending veterinarian. Animals that are individually housed are maintained in this manner because of overaggression, health status, or justified experimental constraints and with the approval of the institutional animal care and use committee and facility veterinarian. Cage complexities (perches, toys, foraging devices, etc.) made available to socially and individually housed primates include the following: toys: Kong®, Plaque Attackers®, Tug-A-Toys®, Nyla-Rings®, solid vinyl rings and tugs, grooved vinyl dumbbells, flexible PVC tubing, and Boomer® balls. Food enrichment: Artificial fleece boards, artificial turf boards, puzzle feeders, PVC knots filled with banana pellets, shakers, fruity rawhides, and treats given by authorized personnel. Cage furniture: Perches and shelves. Environmental enrichment is being given special consideration to (select the type(s) that apply):

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--> Individually housed primate infants or juveniles. Individually housed primates that are unable to see or hear primates of their own or compatible species. Nonhuman primates in psychological distress, as determined by behavior or appearance. Nonhuman primates participating in approved animal study proposals which require restricted activity. Great apes weighing more than 110 lbs (50 kg). Nonhuman primates experiencing restraint for more than 12 hours are provided daily with the opportunity for unrestrained activity for at least 1 continuous hour during the period of restraint unless continuous restraint is required by an approved animal study protocol.