expression of a broad range of species-typical positive behaviors, including locomotion, social interactions, foraging, and manipulation. It also seeks to minimize expression of negative behaviors, such as aggression, self-wounding, stereotypical behaviors, and coprophagy.

The plan recognizes and seeks to avoid stressful events, such as unpredictable activities associated with husbandry that can be interpreted by the animals as unpleasant. Colony routines for each species are spelled out in the species' SOP and include standards for minimizing interaction with unfamiliar persons; for clothing to be worn by care staff, research staff, and veterinarians; and for presentation of food treats.

The plan seeks to provide the animals with an enriched environment in which each can exert some degree of control over its environment as appropriate for its species.

Key to the effectiveness of this plan is the training of personnel in the natural history, behavior, and husbandry of the species and in the biomedical routines employed. Training and specific responsibilities and authorities of personnel are detailed in the training SOP.

II. Pertinent Information

A. Natural History

[This section can be excerpted from the relevant sections of this report and from the references cited.] A separate section should be provided for each species housed at the institution. It might include the following:

  1. Rhesus Monkeys
    1. Habitat diversity with emphasis on aspects of the natural habitat that can be provided in captivity.
    2. Feeding habits with emphasis on foraging and variety of foods eaten.
    3. Social organization with emphasis on the type and size of social organization and movements of animals into and out of social groups.
    4. Cognitive and manipulative skills with emphasis on examples from the literature that can be adapted to the captive environment, such as swings, perches, forage, and objects to scent mark, chew, or destroy.
  1. Squirrel Monkeys
    1. Squirrel monkeys are arboreal primates that live in the middle-level canopy of rain forests, so cages should provide multiple levels of perches and at least one swing.
    2. These animals spend up to 75% of their time foraging through the forest litter, so food is placed on the cage floor after cleaning to force foraging. Puzzle feeders do not work.
    3. These animals are normally housed in social groups with the above environmental enhancements.
    4. Ideally, these animals would be housed in social groups of up to


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