• 20 animals in indoor-outdoor housing with perches, swings, and hide boxes.

B. Records

Documentation of each animal's history is important for providing for and assessing its well-being. USE's records are maintained in the office of the veterinarian and include the following information:

  1. Source of Animals

    Whether the animal was born at USE, purchased from a U.S. Department of Agriculture class A or B vendor, acquired from another institution, or taken from the wild.

  2. Rearing History

    Where the animal was born (wild or captivity) and whether it was reared in social groups (single or mixed-sex) or with peer groups.

  3. Housing History

    Chronology of types of housing and partners for each animal and holding rooms.

  4. Health and Behavior history

    Clinical and behavioral records. Behavioral profiles of each animal (e.g., regurgitates often, overgrooms when housed in pair group, or self-mutilates when single-housed) are maintained from the earliest age possible and updated on daily observation sheets during routine observations of the animals as a baseline for diagnosing the etiology of abnormal behavior and planning for remedial intervention.

III. Social Interactions

This plan provides for the social housing of each animal. Exceptions to the policy that each animal shall be socially housed are detailed in Section V, "Special Considerations."

  1. All animals in single cages are evaluated for their potential for pair or group housing. The position of USE is that all animals shall be socially housed, unless exempted under Section V. Strategies for the introduction of animals to pair or group housing and for the removal of animals from pair or group housing (e.g., because of sickness, aggression, or research protocols) are specified in the group housing SOP.
  2. When animals are required to be separated and reunited repeatedly, consideration is given to the stress caused by removing an animal from a social group and the risks posed by repeatedly re-establishing group formation. These considerations and protocols are provided in the group housing SOP.
  3. Animals housed singly benefit from visual, auditory, and olfactory con-


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