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tact with nearby conspecifics. Unless exempted under Section V and approved by the IACUC, all single-housed animals will be housed to maximize the beneficial aspects of this sensory stimulation.
Some of the institution's NHPs benefit from frequent, positive human contact. The degree of this interaction varies by species and history and interaction is conducted with due consideration to the risk to humans. Guidelines for positive human interaction (e.g., giving treats and making positive facial gestures) with the NHP are detailed in the human interaction SOP. Additional USE policies regarding human interaction with macaques are provided in the institution's occupational health and safety program.
USE maintains a small chimpanzee breeding colony in which nursery rearing becomes necessary when infants are rejected by their mother and surrogate rearing is not possible. The nursery rearing SOP provides the details for these procedures and discusses the value of the use of other species (such as dogs) for comfort and social interaction of infants.
All animals (socially and singly housed) will be provided the opportunity to perch.
IV. Environmental Enrichment
A. Single-Housed Rhesus Monkeys.
Cage complexities will be provided for individually housed primates. Exemptions for scientific reasons will be granted in accordance with Section V, "Special Considerations", and with 9 CFR "Animal Welfare"; "Part 3—Standards''; §3.81. An animal will receive different enrichment devices every 2 weeks because of randomness in the cage change schedule. Animal care staff will be responsible for the implementation of the nonsocial program. The cage complexities may include:
Toys: Kong®, Plaque Attackers®, Tug-A-Toys®, Nyla-Rings®, solid vinyl rings and tugs, grooved vinyl dumbbells, flexible PVC tubing, and Boomer® balls.
Food enrichment: Artificial fleece boards, artificial turf boards, puzzle feeders, PVC knots filled with banana pellets, shakers, fruity rawhides, and treats given by authorized personnel.
Each animal will have at least one toy inside and one toy or food device outside the primary enclosure. Food enrichment will be provided at least two times each week unless the animal is exempted from this type of enrichment.
Special consideration for environmental enrichment will be given to specific individuals or groups as needed: