1. Variety of food items. In all caging situations, a number of different food items are used to vary the diet of the animals. In addition to a commercial monkey chow, squirrel monkeys are fed vegetables and fruits (based on seasonal availability and including bell peppers, string beans, yellow squash, yams, and grapes) on a rotating schedule that is documented on the daily room-check sheets. Peanuts and mealworms are used as special treats to aid the animal care personnel in observing the animals. This task is indicated on the daily room-check sheets. Fruits and vegetables are fed whole, which increases the processing time required to open or shuck the item.
  1. Contact with Caregivers
    1. Daily observation. Using peanuts and mealworms, the animal care personnel interact positively with the squirrel monkeys at least twice a day. These daily observations allow the animals to become accustomed to the caregivers and allow the caregivers to identify developing physical or behavioral problems.
    2. Food items. Food items are handed out by the caregivers twice daily. This positive interaction allows the animals to habituate to the caregivers and allows the caregivers to interact with the animals in a positive, non-threatening manner.

V. Special Considerations

A. Protocol-Restricted Activities

All NHPs at the institution are included in this plan unless excluded for cause by the IACUC or for health or well-being reasons by the attending veterinarian. Some research at USE requires such exclusions, including sleep and vision research in which animals are restrained in chairs for up to 4 hours a day 3 days a week when the electrical activity of the brain is monitored. The procedures for placement of electrodes are detailed in each investigator's protocol and outlined in the electrophysiology SOP. Chair restraint is discussed in the restraint SOP. When the protocol permits, these animals are pair-housed. Such animals are reintroduced to their cagemates after each period of restraint. Replacement of chair restraint with tethering is encouraged by USE and practiced by some investigators. This permits the animal to remain in its home cage but generally does not permit pair housing.

B. Exemptions from Social Housing

All animals housed in nonsocial situations require an exemption from this plan. The social housing exemptions SOP discusses each exemption.

Animals undergoing clinical treatment may be temporarily exempted from social housing at the discretion of the attending veterinarian. Such exemptions will be reviewed every 30 days, and an exemption will terminate when the animal finishes treatment. Long-term exemption from social hous-

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