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and inspecting such plans should be aware of the benefits of using natural objects that support varied natural activities (Reinhardt 1997b). Thinking about the nature of suitable caging material in absolutes should be discouraged in favor of carefully crafted plans that take into account the housed animals' psychological needs to engage in species-typical activities.
It is essential that both the providers of animal care and those overseeing the animal care program receive training regarding the physical and behavioral needs of each species in a facility (9 CFR Ch. 1 (Animal Welfare Regulations) paragraph 3.85; CCAC 1993; NRC 1991, 1996). Training should be part of all technicians' jobs and should be supplemented with institution-sponsored discussions and training programs and with reference materials applicable to their work and to the species with which they are engaged (Kreger 1995). Coordinators of institutional training programs can seek assistance from the Animal Welfare Information Center (AWIC), Beltsville, Md., U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, National Agricultural Library (see also NRC 1991).
Relevant personnel should be skilled in procedures, such as capture and cage sanitation, both to minimize animal distress and to maximize caregiver safety. They should learn to identify individual animals and to recognize normal and abnormal behavior of individual animals. They should also know about species-typical patterns of social organization so that they can form appropriate social groups and understand which animals in a social group are most vulnerable to aggressive attacks and injuries. Finally, it is important to be aware that social interactions with familiar human caregivers can have marked positive effects (Baker 1997; Bayne and others 1993a; Wolfle 1985; 1987) and, conversely, that an animal can behave quite differently, even somewhat abnormally, toward unfamiliar persons, such as new animal technicians or visitors (Chamove and others 1988; Miller and others 1986). Chapter 3 presents some detailed comments on training personnel and animals in necessary routines that involve human-animal interactions.
A good program for animal care should include plans for monitoring, intervention, remediation, and appropriate documentation. Observations of animals, especially of large outdoor nonhuman primate colonies, is a shared responsibility that varies greatly among facilities and includes the animal care staff, behavioral scientists and technicians, and other investigators. The key is that each animal should be observed daily (although we recognize that this might not be possible in island colonies and similar situations) by people appropriately trained to do so in a manner consistent with the constraints of the facility and welfare of the animals. Records should include identification of unusual behavior, provisional diagnoses (including assessment of the current condition and aspects of an