animal's history that are necessary for its interpretation), and attempted remediation and its effectiveness (NRC 1996).


In order to "develop, document, and follow an appropriate plan for environmental enhancement adequate to promote the psychological well-being of nonhuman primates" (9 CFR 3.81), each institution's plan should contain a statement of goals, specify the methods that will be used to achieve the goals, and describe the criteria that will be used to evaluate the effectiveness of the program. A guiding principle is that the program should be based on an understanding of the natural history of a species and its traits and, where necessary, should take into account the histories of individual animals. It is important to recognize that programs to promote the psychological well-being of nonhuman primates are living documents subject to change and updating as new information is acquired.

Each facility should have protocols for diagnosing the cause of physical impairments and abnormal behavior, determining when remediation is necessary, developing remediation plans, assessing effectiveness of remediation, and maintaining appropriate records; they should specify who will be responsible for each aspect of diagnosis, remediation, assessment, and documentation. Personnel making the decisions should have training in the aspects of veterinary medicine and primate behavior necessary to ensure that diagnoses and treatments are developed in a knowledgeable manner. It is recognized that there might be no known methods for remediating some physical impairments and abnormal behavior (Novak and others, in press) and that for some individual animals all known methods of remediation might prove ineffective. In those cases, it is important that personnel responsible for animal care document good-faith efforts to use all currently available information in attempting remediation.

The well-being of research animals is not just a consideration of the animal care staff. In many cases, it begins with the research protocols. Research methods should be evaluated regularly; as less stressful or less invasive methods are developed, their adoption should be considered. Methods of enhancing animal well-being must be consistent with the requirements and goals of the research (NRC 1996).

Checklist for a Plan to Promote the Psychological Well-Being of Nonhuman Primates

This outline constitutes a sample checklist of points to consider in the development of institutional plans to provide for the psychological well-being of non human primates. The institutional plan should clearly reflect species variations. However, few plans can be expected to be equally beneficial for all individuals of a species, and professional judgment should be exercised to address the needs of

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