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cal, and cognitive responses, which can exacerbate disease (Coe 1993; Gluck 1979; Goosen 1988; Gordon and others 1992; Laudenslager and others 1990).
The rigorous quarantine requirements for primates newly imported into the United States, as regulated by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), might limit but do not preclude attempts to provide enrichment. The relevant federal policies include foreign quarantine regulations (42 CFR Part 71.53), ebola-related filovirus infection and interim guidelines for handling nonhuman primates during transit and quarantine (CDC 1990), nonhuman primate importation (CDC 1991), and tuberculosis in imported nonhuman primates (CDC 1993). Although the purpose of the CDC-imposed quarantine is to try to detect and prevent the introduction of diseased animals that could present a threat to humans or other nonhuman primates, quarantine is also a time of stabilization and routine disease monitoring. Programs for enriched, single-cage housing or various social groupings can be initiated during quarantine and continued after the quarantine and stabilization period.
Removal of an animal from its usual housing for treatment of an illness or injury can also prove stressful. Whereas such hospitalization is not as great a change as experienced by newly arrived quarantined animals, suggestions concerning maintaining ties in quarantined animals will still apply. Very young animals might need to be removed with their mothers or some familiar companion to reduce the stress of isolation, even if the second animal requires no treatment. Whenever possible, consideration should be given to ensuring that noninfectious animals under treatment can maintain at least some sensory contact with their usual companions.