loss, and eventual death. The presence of too much protein in the diet of lorisids can promote kidney disease.

Tarsiers are strictly carnivorous and will not eat any kind of inanimate prepared food. In a typical night, a single tarsier will eat 30–40 crickets and perhaps one lizard. They will also accept mealworms, wild-caught insects, and laboratory-mouse pups. They also appear to need supplemental calcium, and crickets can be coated or dusted with powdered calcium or fed a diet rich in calcium before being introduced. Calcium paste can also be spread on tarsiers' thighs when they are sleeping, and they will later groom it off. Water should be supplied in bowls and as mist.

Social Behavior

Except for the relatively small number of species that do not consort as family groups (such as the mouse lemur, aye-aye, lorises, and some kinds of galago), prosimians do best when housed in social groups. All are highly sensitive to chemical stimuli (Schilling 1979). Scent glands often are sexually dimorphic and can undergo seasonal changes in activity (Epple 1986; Schilling 1979, 1980). There is great complexity in the scent-marking behavior of some prosimians, including elaborate mixing and dispersal of odorants from several sources (Evans and Goy 1968; Jolly 1966).

Behavioral observations and several experimental studies have shown that secretions yield detailed information about scent donors' species, subspecies, gender, individuality, and hormonal status, as well as the age of the scent mark (Clarke 1982a, b; Dugmore and others 1984; Epple 1986; Harrington 1976, 1977; Mertl 1975; Schilling 1979, 1980). This information is important in many contexts, such as territoriality, reproduction, and social hierarchies. In the solitary species, chemical signals seem to be the predominant means by which animals communicate and by which breeding activities are coordinated (Charles-Dominique 1974; Schilling 1980). Moreover, in at least one species, urinary odors have been shown to influence endocrine events. Odors from dominant male mouse lemurs decrease testosterone concentrations and increase cortisol concentrations in isolated, unfamiliar males (Schilling and Perret 1987; Schilling and others 1984). Such priming might not be limited to the mouse lemur, but might occur in males and females of some other prosimians as well (Epple 1986).

The high degree of reliance on chemical communication means that prosimians should be maintained in housing that permits them to engage in scent-marking activities, explore the scent of conspecifics, and maintain their own scent environment. Scent marks seem important to their well-being and might influence the reproductive physiology of conspecifics (Schilling 1979; Schilling and Perret 1987). Frequent and too-thorough cage-cleaning might be highly disruptive to their well-being. As with the callitrichids, cage-cleaning schedules should consider both the need for sanitation and maintenance of the animals'



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