lead quickly to electrolyte disturbances, so quick and aggressive intervention is warranted. Intravenous fluids are the mainstay of such intervention; monitoring of intravenous fluids is essential because they tend to sequester in the large intestine. Third-generation cephalosporins are preferable to aminoglycosides in these animals. Because of the fermentative processes in their digestion, injectable antibiotics have to be used. Sick sifakas, if possible, should be paired with or kept in sight of other conspecifics to avoid anorexia and depression. Inasmuch as much of their bodily fluid is extracted from ingested plants, anorexia quickly leads to dehydration, electrolyte imbalances, and death. Sifaka are extremely sensitive to acepromazine, which causes almost immediate apnea and should never be used for sedation.

Aye-ayes are generally hardy, and adults weight about 2.5–3 kg (5.5–6.6 lb). They might continually scratch at cuts or scrapes, especially about the face, and this greatly delays healing.

Kidney failure and liver failure are frequent causes of death in lorisids and are perhaps diet-related. Fecal examinations should be conducted twice a year. Lorisids fight each other with attacks to the head, genitals, and tail, and the bite wounds are very likely to develop Pasteurella abscesses. Stressed mothers might overgroom infants. Much more than lemurs, lorisids require isolation from stressful factors. Sources of stress include the presence of too many cages in one room with consequent high levels of calls and vocalizations. Technicians should avoid disturbing nursing mothers. Stress is also contributed to by cages that are too small. Signs of stress include urine burns and overgrooming, which leads to hair loss.

Tarsiers seem to be susceptible to severe ketosis, which might be age-related and appears unresponsive to medical treatment. Nutritional factors and the need to eat only live food affect the course of illnesses, because the animals stop feeding when weakened by illness. Pesticide residue can be a contributing factor to high infant mortality and loss of health. Tarsiers seem to be unusually sensitive to pesticide residue because of their diet, which is composed largely of insects, so every effort should be taken to keep their environments free of such substances.

Special Considerations

Lemurids are sensitive to Toxoplasma and Yersinia, and every effort should be made to keep these organisms out of their enclosures. Fecal material from cats and poultry are likely vectors, and Yersinia thrives in standing pools of water. Yersinia can be controlled by preventing the formation of standing water pools in runs.

Ruffed lemur females, and other lemurs less often, sometimes neglect their young, especially when they are first-time mothers. They can be encouraged to "bond" with and nurture their infants by placing both mother and infants in a



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