ing. Juvenile squirrel monkeys stress easily and can become dehydrated as a consequence. Spider and woolly monkeys seem particularly susceptible to stress associated with restraint and handling. Woolly monkeys also seem to show a high frequency of high blood pressure, and veterinary procedures should take this into account.

Cebids are susceptible to most of the common viral upper respiratory illnesses that people develop (Adams and others 1995). Personnel who have symptoms of such illnesses should avoid working closely with animals. Measles is also readily transmitted to New World monkeys. Night monkeys are particularly susceptible to viral diseases of humans, such as Herpesvirus simplex and measles (Weller 1994). Personnel should not be allowed to work with night monkeys if they have cold sores. Personnel that have family members with measles should not work with cebids. Personnel who have been vaccinated against measles should not have contact with cebids for at least 2 weeks after vaccination.

Several diseases that occur commonly in night monkeys are uncommon in other neotropical primates. Dilative and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, possibly the result of chronic hypertension, is peculiar to night monkeys and can lead to sudden death or chronic heart failure (Weller 1994). Chronic glomerulonephritis is commonly observed in aged animals (Abee 1985; Chapman and others 1973; Hunt and others 1976; Stills and Bullock 1981). Hemolytic and necrotizing myopathy responsive to vitamin E supplementation has been observed in Aotus griseimembra (Weller 1994). Medical management of the diseases of night monkeys is complex and requires close veterinary supervision.

Cebids are susceptible to a number of intestinal parasites, but the usual veterinary medical treatment for such problems is generally effective. A well-planned program of examinations and treatment will prevent most disease problems.

Cebids appear to be more resistant to tuberculosis than are Old World monkeys; few problems with this disease have ever been reported. But Herpes tamarinus, which can cause serious disease in callitrichids, is also a serious problem for night monkeys and is often carried by squirrel monkeys without producing clinical signs (Adams and others 1995). As a general policy, squirrel monkeys should be housed in isolation from night monkeys and from susceptible callitrichid species. (Consult Appendix B for a list of diseases known to be transmitted among primate taxa.)

One other problem that the veterinary staff should be alert for is the possible development of gestational diabetes in woolly monkeys. Captive management of New World monkeys remains relatively poorly understood, and vigilance on the part of the veterinary and husbandry staff is the best precaution possible.

Cebids are not known to pose any special bacterial- or viral-disease hazards to the humans that interact with them. Therefore, personnel bitten or scratched by a New World monkey can be treated in a similar way as bites and scratches from a dog or cat (NRC 1997a).



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