all primates—and indeed to many nonprimates. Chapter 2 deals with the essential elements of an effective institutional program designed to ensure well-being. Chapter 3 reviews basic institutional procedures and routines from the standpoint of their impact on psychological well-being. Chapter 4 considers the challenges to well-being created by special conditions and procedures that might be required by research protocols. Each of the next five chapters deals with the particular attributes and requirements of a specific biological group in the Primate order.

The recommendations presented in this volume are based on the collective experience of the committee and the information available to it. It should be emphasized, however, that many gaps exist in our knowledge of psychological well-being in nonhuman primates. The problems are multifaceted and cannot be wholly divorced from broader concerns regarding conservation, primatology, the effective and judicious use of primates in research, and other uniquely human enterprises. Even apart from those complex issues, research directly focused on psychological well-being is in its infancy. Chapter 10 suggests some of the pressing research needs. It is hoped that the contents of this volume will be reviewed within the next 5 years and that new information on psychological well-being will yield revisions and updates.

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