red, white, and blue hindquarter display of East African forms and are sometimes called green monkeys instead of vervets. Differences in facial hair patterns distinguish grivets as well, but common names are not used consistently, and most lump all into a single species. The West African forms are likely ancestral to the wild populations found in several islands in the West Indies, but individuals from the West Indian population are smaller than those in the West African populations.

Patas, talapoins, and mangabeys are also found in captivity with some frequency, and patas are also called hussar, military, or mustached monkeys by some exhibitors. Other guenons are often seen in exhibits but seldom in laboratories.

Colobines are less often seen in captivity, and this can be attributed primarily to problems in developing adequate diets. The spectacular black and white colobus monkey (Colobus abyssinicus) and the sacred or hanuman langur (Presybytis entellus) are most often seen in exhibits. Representatives of other colobine genera from Asia are less often displayed, but many Americans have seen the Chinese golden monkey (Rhinopithecus roxellana) and have seen postcard pictures of the proboscis monkeys (Nasalis larvatus) maintained in captivity.

A variety of social organizations characterize the Old World monkeys, but all are intensely social, spending all their lives in social groups except for brief periods of transfer between groups (Dittus 1980). In most cases, it is the male that transfer; but even in species in which males might spend some time out of a breeding group, they can form all-male bands and continue to live in a social milieu; in some species, a male can spend time as a solitary animal when in transit between sexual groups.

Housing

Old World monkeys have been successfully maintained in a variety of housing conditions in captivity. Types of housing include individual cages in climate-controlled buildings, indoor mesh pens, indoor-outdoor runs, corn cribs, corrals, and semi-free-ranging conditions, such as islands. If properly acclimated and afforded protection from wind, sun, and rain, some species can live outdoors in temperatures from around freezing to over 39°C (102°F) and in relative humidities characteristic of desert or tropical environments. When maintained in climate-controlled environments, these monkeys do well under conditions comfortable for humans (NRC 1996).

The design of housing for Old World monkeys differs little from that described in Chapters 2 and 3. Most housing was indeed developed in maintaining Old World monkeys. These are generally robust primates that will shake and attack cage structures, and sturdy construction is in order. Although many spend considerable periods on the ground, virtually all flee upward when disturbed, and they will use the upper portions of a cage preferentially if given perches or suitable structures to



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