diverged from the lineage of African apes and humans about 13 Myr B.P.
H. erectus spread out of Africa shortly after its emergence from Homo habilis. Fossil remains of H. erectus are known from Indonesia (Java), China, and the Middle East, as well as Africa (Gibbons, 1994). H. erectus fossils from Java have been dated 1.81 ± 0.01 and 1.66 ± 0.04 Myr B.P. (Swisher et al., 1994). There are three models concerning the geographic origin of modern humans: candelabra, African replacement, and multiregional (Figure 7).
The candelabra model was proposed by Carleton S. Coon (1962), who argued that ''Homo erectus evolved into Homo sapiens not once but five times, as each subspecies, living in its own territory, passed a critical threshold from a more brutal to a more sapient state." Moreover, the threshold was crossed at different times, the Caucasoid race becoming sapiens first, whereas the Congoloids reached the sapiens condition some 200,000 years later. Coon's proposal was effectively criticized by several authors who pointed out the impossibility that the same species would