phylogenic lineage, 97-98

Anticodon, origins, 26, 37

Archaea, 15-16

Archaebacteria

   characteristics, 11-12

   classification, 11, 21-22

   in eubacteria-eukaryotic-prokaryotic lineage, 4, 12-16

   genome sequence, 18, 21

   ribozymology, 4-5

   RNA polymerase subunits, 20

Arthropods

   late Precambrian form, 102-103

   phylogenetic lineage, 95, 96-97

Asexual reproduction, 53

Atmospheric conditions

   in Cambrian explosion, 102

   primordial cyanobacteria, 55-56

B

Background selection, 276, 277-282

Bacteria

   chloroplast-mitochondria lineage in, 9

   as prokaryotes, 6

   reproductive rate, 251

   See also E. coli

Bacteriophages

   P1. See Framework P1 map

   Qß, replication strategy, 28-29, 30, 33-34

Balanced selection, 196-197, 199

Bilaterians

   body plan evolution, 101

   Vendian, 95, 97, 98-99

Biometrical science, iv

Bipedalism, 173-175

Bottleneck effect, 188-189, 197-201, 206

   in human evolution, 203, 204

Brachiopods, 98

Bradytelic evolution, 43

   Simpson on, 53, 131-132

Brome mosaic virus, 29

Burgess Shale

   cnidarians in, 90

   middle Cambrian diversity in, 91

C

Cambrian Period, 85

   acritarch evolution, 69-80

   annelids, 97-98

   boundaries of explosion, 88-89, 91

   environmental factors in explosion, 102

   gene expression in explosion, 103

   metazoan body plans, 87, 93

   metazoan diversity before explosion, 85, 99

   metazoan faunas, 89-91

   skeletal fossils, 90-91

Candelabra model, 202-203

Cauliflower mosaic virus, 33

CCA terminus, 3, 28, 31, 35-37

Cell-type number, 92-93

Cenancestor

   definition, 6

   in eukaryote-prokaryote lineage, 10-11

   genome structure, 18

   Iwabe rooting, 13-15, 16-20

   macromolecular synthesis in, 25-26

   obstacles to understanding, 20-22

Cephalopods, body plan, 98

Chance events, 251, 267-268

Chloroplast

   amino acid replacement in, 223-227

   codon use, 220, 229

   complexity of genome evolution in, 229-231

   eukaryote-prokaryote lineage, 7, 9, 21

   in eukaryotic cell, 215

   genome conservation, 216-217

   genome structure, 213, 215, 216

   genomic deletion events, 217-219

   intron evolution, patterns of, 228-229

   mutation patterns, 217-220

   noncoding DNA in, 217-220, 229

   nucleotide substitution rate, 221-223

   protein coding genes in, 220-223

   pseudogenes, 217

   research role, 230



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