Walter M. Fitch and Francisco J. Ayala
George Gaylord Simpson said in his classic Tempo and Mode in Evolution (1944) that paleontologists enjoy special advantages over geneticists on two evolutionary topics. One general topic, suggested by the word "tempo," has to do with "evolutionary rates…, their acceleration and deceleration, the conditions of exceptionally slow or rapid evolutions, and phenomena suggestive of inertia and momentum." A group of related problems, implied by the word "mode," involves "the study of the way, manner, or pattern of evolution, a study in which tempo is a basic factor, but which embraces considerably more than tempo'' (pp. xvii–xviii).
Simpson's book was self-consciously written in the wake of Theodosius Dobzhansky's Genetics and the Origin of Species (1937). The title of Dobzhansky's book suggested its theme: the role of genetics in explaining "the origin of species"—i.e., a synthesis of Darwin's theory of evolution by natural selection and the maturing science of genetics. In the introduction to his book, Simpson averred that an essential part of his study was an "attempted synthesis of paleontology and genetics," an effort that pervaded the whole book, but was particularly the subject of the first two chapters, which accounted for nearly half the book's pages.
Darwin believed that evolutionary change occurs by natural selection of small individual differences appearing every generation within any species. Singly the changes effected by selection are small but, given enough time, great changes can take place. Two of Darwin's most dedicated supporters, Thomas Huxley and Francis Galton, argued