LABORATORY CHEMICAL SAFETY SUMMARY: ANILINE

Substance

Aniline

(Phenylamine; aminobenzene)

CAS 62-53-3

 

Formula

C6H5NH2

 

Physical Properties

Colorless, oily liquid; darkens to brown on exposure to air and light

bp 184 °C, mp -6 °C

Moderately soluble in water (3.5 g/100 mL at 20 °C)

 

Odor

Sweet, amine-like odor detectable at 0.6 to 10 ppm

Vapor Density

3.2 (air = 1.0)

 

Vapor Pressure

0.7 mmHg at 20 °C

 

Flash Point

70 °C

 

Autoignition Temperature

615 °C

 

Toxicity Data

LD50 oral (rat)

250 mg/kg

 

LD50 skin (rabbit)

820 mg/kg

 

LC50 inhal (rat)

478 ppm

 

PEL (OSHA)

5 ppm (19 mg/m3)—skin

 

TLV-TWA (ACGIH)

2 ppm (7.6 mg/m3)—skin

Major Hazards

Moderately toxic if swallowed, inhaled, or absorbed through the skin; causes skin and eye irritation.

Toxicity

Aniline is a moderate skin irritant, a moderate to severe eye irritant, and a skin sensitizer in animals. Aniline is moderately toxic via inhalation and ingestion. Symptoms of exposure (which may be delayed up to 4 hours) include headache, weakness, dizziness, nausea, difficulty breathing, and unconsciousness. Exposure to aniline results in the formation of methemoglobin and can thus interfere with the ability of the blood to transport oxygen. Effects from exposure at levels near the lethal dose include hypoactivity, tremors, convulsions, liver and kidney effects, and cyanosis.

Aniline has not been found to be a carcinogen or reproductive toxin in humans. Some tests in rats demonstrate carcinogenic activity. However, other tests in which mice, guinea pigs, and rabbits were treated by various routes of administration gave negative results. Aniline produced developmental toxicity only at maternally toxic dose levels but did not have a selective toxicity for the fetus. It produces genetic damage in animals and in mammalian cell cultures but not in bacterial cell cultures.



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