LABORATORY CHEMICAL SAFETY SUMMARY: CARBON DISULFIDE

Substance

Carbon disulfide

(Carbon disulfide)

CAS 75-15-0

 

Formula

CS2

 

Physical Properties

Colorless liquid

bp 46 °C, mp -111 °C

Slightly soluble in water (0.22 g/100 mL)

 

Odor

Cabbage-like odor detectable at 0.016 to 0.42 ppm (mean = 0.2 ppm)

Vapor Density

2.6 (air = 1.0)

 

Vapor Pressure

300 mmHg at 20 °C

 

Flash Point

-30 °C

 

Autoignition Temperature

90 °C

 

Toxicity Data

LD50 oral (rat)

3188 mg/kg

 

LC50 inhal (rat)

25,000 mg/m3 (2 h)

 

STEL (OSHA)

12 ppm (36 mg/m3)-skin

 

PEL (OSHA)

4 ppm (12 mg/m3)

 

TLV-TWA (ACGIH)

10 ppm (31 mg/m3)-skin

Major Hazards

Extremely flammable, volatile liquid; vapors are readily ignited by hot surfaces.

Toxicity

Carbon disulfide is only slightly toxic to laboratory animals by inhalation or ingestion, but its toxicity is relatively greater in humans. Exposure to 5000 ppm of carbon disulfide for 15 min can be fatal to humans. CS2 may also exert its toxic effects after absorption through skin. By all routes of exposure, carbon disulfide affects the central nervous system. Overexposure to CS2 may cause headache, dizziness, fatigue, muscle weakness, numbness, nervousness, or psychological disturbances. Contact of the liquid or high concentrations of CS2 vapor with the eyes may cause irritation. Skin contact can also cause rash or skin irritation. Carbon disulfide is regarded as a substance with good warning properties.

Chronic exposure to relatively high concentrations of carbon disulfide may cause the central nervous system effects described above. In addition, chronic overexposure to carbon disulfide causes increased atherosclerosis, leading to risk of cardiovascular disease. Prolonged exposure of female workers to low concentrations of carbon disulfide has been associated with birth defects in offspring; exposure limit values provide little margin of safety for risk of developmental effects. Carbon disulfide has not been found to be a carcinogen in humans.



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