LABORATORY CHEMICAL SAFETY SUMMARY: HYDRAZINE

Substance

Hydrazine

(Diamide, diamine)

CAS 302-01-2

 

Formula

NH2NH2

 

Physical Properties

Colorless oily liquid that fumes in air

bp 113.5 °C, mp 1.4 °C

Miscible with water

 

Odor

Fishy or ammonia-like odor detectable at 3 to 4 ppm (mean = 3.7 ppm)

Vapor Density

1.04 (air = 1.0)

 

Vapor Pressure

14.4 mmHg at 25 °C

 

Flash Point

38 °C

 

Autoignition Temperature

24 °C on iron rust surface; 270 °C on glass surface

Toxicity Data

LD50 oral (rat)

60 mg/kg

 

LD50 skin (rabbit)

91 mg/kg

 

LC50 inhal (rat)

570 ppm (744 mg/m3; 4 h)

 

PEL (OSHA)

1 ppm (1.3 mg/m3)—skin

 

TLV-TWA (ACGIH)

0.1 ppm (0.13 mg/m3)—skin-suspected human carcinogen

 

(proposed)

0.01 ppm (0.013 mg/m3)

Major Hazards

Possible human carcinogen (OSHA "select carcinogen"); corrosive to eyes, skin, and mucous membranes; highly flammable and reactive.

Toxicity

Hydrazine is extremely destructive to the tissues of the mucous membranes and upper respiratory tract, eyes, and skin. Skin contact with the liquid can result in severe burns; hydrazine is readily absorbed through the skin, leading to systemic effects, which may include damage to the liver, kidney, nervous system, and red blood cells. Hydrazine vapor is irritating to the nose, throat, and respiratory tract, and inhalation of high concentrations may be fatal as a result of spasm, inflammation, chemical pneumonitis, and pulmonary edema. Symptoms of exposure may include a burning sensation, coughing, wheezing, laryngitis, shortness of breath, headache, nausea, and vomiting. Hydrazine vapor is extremely irritating to the eyes and can cause temporary blindness. Eye contact with the liquid can result in severe burns and permanent damage. Hydrazine is not considered to have adequate warning properties.

Hydrazine is listed by IARC in Group 2B "possible human carcinogen" and is classified as a "select carcinogen" according to the criteria of the OSHA Laboratory Standard.



The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement