Index

A

Abrogation of treaties, 106, 107-108, 374-375

Accelerator transmutation of waste (ATW), 2, 4, 5, 13, 14, 27, 28-29 , 49, 51-52, 56-57, 78, 80, 241-284

aqueous, 66-67, 71, 80, 81, 83, 85, 249, 251, 252-257, 272-273, 276-278 , 280-281

blanket assembly, 46, 57, 247, 248, 280

economics, 76, 85, 112, 282

feasibility, 5-6, 28, 75-76, 85

fluid fuel system, 28, 74, 83, 85, 270-271

heat removal, 29, 73, 85

molten salt processes, 3, 28, 44, 46, 47, 48, 394

nonaqueous, 67, 80, 81, 83, 251, 258-265, 278-279, 281, 388, 393

power production, 14, 18, 29, 265

regulation, 123, 124

and repository disposal, 83, 124, 395

research and development, 28, 29, 48, 75-76, 394, 452

safety issues, 28, 29, 73-74, 111, 265-273, 385, 387-388, 391, 392-395

separations for, 3-4, 30, 43, 44, 46-48, 262-263, 394

see also CURE (Clean Use of Reactor Energy) study;

Phoenix accelerator

Accidents, 74, 384

health effects, 109, 110, 142

transportation, 102, 109

ACTINEX process, 448

Actinide burning (fissioning), 12-13, 14, 26, 45.

See also Advanced liquid metal reactor (ALMR);

Transmutation technology

Actinides, 2, 12, 21, 22, 28, 39, 485

minor (MA), 32, 33, 72, 84, 404

repository risk, 1, 3, 25-26, 33

separation, 2, 13, 29, 39, 40, 41, 43, 45

transmutation, 3, 26, 85, 348

see also Transuranics (TRU)

Activation products, 21-22, 31, 39

Adsorptive separations, 173

Advanced light-water reactor (ALWR), 14, 27, 119, 228-231

Advanced liquid metal reactor (ALMR), 2, 4-5, 13, 14, 27-28, 55-56 , 70, 78, 80, 83, 84, 201-224, 400, 463-464

as breeder reactor, 14, 28, 70, 84

cooling system, 388, 398

demonstrations, 28, 217-218

economics, 7, 28, 75, 78, 85, 112, 115-116, 218-224, 436, 440-442, 443, 468

feasibility, 5, 28, 75, 85-85

health risks, 108-109, 110-111, 464, 466

integral fast reactor (IFR) program, 14, 27-28, 30, 49, 55, 84-85, 107, 108, 369-370, 375-376, 388-389, 398, 399, 452

licensing, 28, 466, 467

and new LWR construction, 70, 80, 81

Power Reactor, Innovative, Small Module (PRISM) program, 14, 55, 202

proliferation issues, 107, 108, 369, 374, 375-376, 377-378



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Nuclear Wastes: Technologies for Separations and Transmutation Index A Abrogation of treaties, 106, 107-108, 374-375 Accelerator transmutation of waste (ATW), 2, 4, 5, 13, 14, 27, 28-29 , 49, 51-52, 56-57, 78, 80, 241-284 aqueous, 66-67, 71, 80, 81, 83, 85, 249, 251, 252-257, 272-273, 276-278 , 280-281 blanket assembly, 46, 57, 247, 248, 280 economics, 76, 85, 112, 282 feasibility, 5-6, 28, 75-76, 85 fluid fuel system, 28, 74, 83, 85, 270-271 heat removal, 29, 73, 85 molten salt processes, 3, 28, 44, 46, 47, 48, 394 nonaqueous, 67, 80, 81, 83, 251, 258-265, 278-279, 281, 388, 393 power production, 14, 18, 29, 265 regulation, 123, 124 and repository disposal, 83, 124, 395 research and development, 28, 29, 48, 75-76, 394, 452 safety issues, 28, 29, 73-74, 111, 265-273, 385, 387-388, 391, 392-395 separations for, 3-4, 30, 43, 44, 46-48, 262-263, 394 see also CURE (Clean Use of Reactor Energy) study; Phoenix accelerator Accidents, 74, 384 health effects, 109, 110, 142 transportation, 102, 109 ACTINEX process, 448 Actinide burning (fissioning), 12-13, 14, 26, 45. See also Advanced liquid metal reactor (ALMR); Transmutation technology Actinides, 2, 12, 21, 22, 28, 39, 485 minor (MA), 32, 33, 72, 84, 404 repository risk, 1, 3, 25-26, 33 separation, 2, 13, 29, 39, 40, 41, 43, 45 transmutation, 3, 26, 85, 348 see also Transuranics (TRU) Activation products, 21-22, 31, 39 Adsorptive separations, 173 Advanced light-water reactor (ALWR), 14, 27, 119, 228-231 Advanced liquid metal reactor (ALMR), 2, 4-5, 13, 14, 27-28, 55-56 , 70, 78, 80, 83, 84, 201-224, 400, 463-464 as breeder reactor, 14, 28, 70, 84 cooling system, 388, 398 demonstrations, 28, 217-218 economics, 7, 28, 75, 78, 85, 112, 115-116, 218-224, 436, 440-442, 443, 468 feasibility, 5, 28, 75, 85-85 health risks, 108-109, 110-111, 464, 466 integral fast reactor (IFR) program, 14, 27-28, 30, 49, 55, 84-85, 107, 108, 369-370, 375-376, 388-389, 398, 399, 452 licensing, 28, 466, 467 and new LWR construction, 70, 80, 81 Power Reactor, Innovative, Small Module (PRISM) program, 14, 55, 202 proliferation issues, 107, 108, 369, 374, 375-376, 377-378

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Nuclear Wastes: Technologies for Separations and Transmutation and repository disposal, 100, 101, 341-344, 398, 400-401, 466-468 research and development, 28, 54, 75, 84-85, 126, 349 safety issues, 28, 73, 211-214, 215, 387, 388-389, 397-401 separations for, 3, 30, 43, 45-46, 389, 399-400 transportation issues, 375, 378 TRU transmutation, 2, 4-5, 14, 28, 61-66, 71, 82, 83, 84-85, 207-209 Airborne releases, see Atmospheric releases ALARA (As Low as Reasonably Achievable) concept, 121, 485 Alkaline wastes, 16, 43 Alkanes, 42 Alkyl phosphates, 38 ALMR, see Advanced liquid metal reactor (ALMR) Aluminum cladding, 89, 147 Aluminum salts, 38, 89, 95, 147 ALWR, see Advanced light-water reactor Americium (Am), 25, 27, 28, 31, 40, 83 decay heat, 39-32 repository risk, 33, 34, 82, 100 separations, 3, 37, 41, 42, 45, 47 ANL, see Argonne National Laboratory Aqueous separations, 13, 14, 27, 29, 30, 38, 40-43, 47, 107, 148-150 for ATW systems, 3-4, 46, 47-48 and decay heat, 3-4, 46 economics, 112, 117 REDOX process, 38, 147, 150-151 solvent extraction processes, 29, 38, 40, 47, 169-172, 179 Aqueous transport, see Groundwater dissolution and migration Argentina, uranium enrichment, 357, 362, 363, 372 Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) ALMR/IFR development, 14, 28, 49, 54, 452 LWR fuel reprocessing, 158-164 pyroprocessing separations, 29, 30, 41, 43, 46, 155-158, 417 Armed forces, 106 Atmospheric releases, 99, 385 carbon-14, 26 see also Gaseous releases Atomic Energy Act (AEA), 19, 121, 122, 123 Atomic Energy Commission (AEC), 14, 55, 118, 413, 414, 466 Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (AVLIS) system, 175-176 ATW, see Accelerator transmutation of waste (ATW) Automation, 107 B Background radiation, 3, 26, 34, 111 Barnwell, South Carolina, reprocessing plant, 116, 165-166, 414, 428 Baseline, see Once-through fuel cycle Batch refueling, 354, 373 Batch reprocessing, 40, 46, 126, 396 Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratories, 49, 450 Bechtel, 116 Belgium, 168 Bidentate extractants, 170-171 Bilateral agreements, 106, 360, 361, 363, 366, 372 Bismuth phosphate (BiPO4) process, 38, 150 Blanket system, 38, 46, 57, 247, 248, 280, 373-374 Blood-forming cells, 25 BNL, see Brookhaven National Laboratory Bone cancer, 25 Boundary-layer heating, 74, 270-271 Brazil, uranium enrichment, 357, 362, 363, 372 Breeder reactors, 27, 39, 45, 60, 367, 415 and proliferation concerns, 361, 362, 374, 375-376 see also Advanced liquid metal reactor (ALMR) Breeding ratios, 27, 28 Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), 14, 46, 49, 57, 390, 404, 452 Bulk materials, 40, 44, 47, 107 Burial, see Surface storage and disposal BUTEX process, 29 C Cadmium salts, 43 Calcine, see Solidified defense waste Canada, sales to India, 358, 361, 414 Cancer deaths, 3, 34, 102, 108, 109, 110 Cancrinites, 89 CANDU reactor, 358, 361, 362, 373 Capital costs, 77, 78, 113-114, 116, 417-426, 443-444 Capsules, see Encapsulation Carbonates, 40, 176-177 Carbon dioxide (CO2), 26 Carbon-14, 22, 26, 84, 101

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Nuclear Wastes: Technologies for Separations and Transmutation packaging and waste forms, 26, 31, 34, 84, 100 radiation doses, 26, 34 releases, 26, 34, 99, 100, 318, 338, 345 separations, 26, 100 Carter Administration policies, 18, 118, 362, 414 Catastrophes, see Accidents; Natural disasters Caustic solutions, 40, 147 Certification, see Licensing and certification Cesium (Cs), 24, 31, 33 decay heat, 11, 23, 24, 32, 39, 323, 326 in defense waste, 16, 87, 89, 95, 98 groundwater dissolution and migration, 72, 333 health risk, 23, 335 separation and extraction, 40, 42, 43 storage and disposal, 47, 326, 342-343 transmutation, 50, 72 Chalmers University of Technology, 451 Chemical reprocessing, 335, 371, 372 China nuclear weapons program, 104, 367 reprocessing activities, 447 Chitin, 177 Chlorides, 38, 39, 43, 84, 85, 175 Chopping, 30, 147 Civilian waste, see Spent fuel (commercial LWR) Cladding, 3, 22, 34, 45, 89, 147, 488 Zircaloy, 34, 45, 83, 89, 141, 147 Class C waste, 28, 44, 101 Clean Air Act (CAA), 121, 124 Clean Water Act, 124 Clinch River fast reactor, 369 Clinton Administration policies, 106, 108, 367-368 Commercial waste, see Spent fuel (commercial LWR) Commission of the European Communities (CEC), 449, 452-453 Complete Test Ban Treaty, 367 Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act, 19 Constant nuclear power scenario, 2, 60 ALMR transmutation, 61-64, 65, 80-81, 83 ATW, 66-68, 81, 83 deployments, 80-81 LWR transmutation, 68-70 TRU ratio, 71 Cooling systems, 38, 44 ALMR, 388, 398 Curium, 385 Costs and economics, 2, 6-7, 8, 77-78, 84-85, 112-119 passim, 413-444 ALMR, 7, 28, 75, 78, 85, 112, 115-116, 218-224, 436, 440-442, 443, 468 ATW, 76, 85, 112, 282 dose reductions, 110-111 Hanford tank waste remediation, 39, 40, 93-97 passim, 191-193 LWR transmuters, 5, 75, 78, 84, 112, 239-241 PBR, 77, 297 Phoenix, 307-308 power plants, 13, 118 pyroprocessing, 7, 40, 43, 112, 417, 441-442, 443 repositories, 12, 16, 101 separations, 37, 39, 112, 117, 442-443 see also Financing issues Counterproliferation policy, 106, 365-366 Covert operations, 106-107, 366 Iraq, 105, 363-364 North Korea, 105, 364-365 Criticality and critical mass in accelerators, 46 in separations, 40 in waste deposits, 100-101 Critical reactors, 51, 55-56. See also Advanced liquid metal reactor (ALMR); Fast reactors; LWR transmutation technology; Particle-bed reactor (PBR); Thermal reactors CURE (Clean Use of Reactor Energy) study, 2, 14, 49, 55, 72, 179, 387, 390, 406-408, 452 Curium (Cm), 3, 25, 27, 40, 45, 46, 47, 83 Czechoslovakia, separations research, 42, 447-448 D Deaf Smith County, Texas, site, 15 Decay heat and radioactivity, 11, 21, 23, 32, 39, 348 and accelerators, 388, 396 and reactor site storage, 1n, 11 and repository performance, 8, 23, 31, 32, 99, 101, 315, 320-328, 348, 467 Yucca Mountain site, 8, 31, 32, 58, 100, 101, 317, 328, 467 Declining nuclear power ("phase-out") scenario, 2, 60, 71, 99 ALMR transmutation, 64-66, 71, 80, 83 ATW, 68, 71, 80

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Nuclear Wastes: Technologies for Separations and Transmutation deployments, 78-80 LWR transmutation, 70, 71, 79-80 Decontamination factors (DF), 30, 41, 47 Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB), 27 Defense production wastes, 9-10, 11, 16-17, 27, 39, 126 in civilian repositories, 2, 15, 17, 18 DOE management, 11, 29-30, 39-40 high-level (HLW), 16-17, 31, 32, 37, 126 low-level (LLW), 16, 37 pyroprocessing, 29-30, 43 separation processes, 16, 17, 32, 37, 38, 39-40, 88-89, 148 site remediation, 39, 93, 98, 126 Demonstration and pilot projects, 82, 126 ALMR, 28, 217-218 ATW, 28 defense waste site remediation, 39, 93, 98, 126 pyroprocessing, 28, 30, 46, 47 separations processes, 3, 9, 29, 30, 32, 37, 39, 42, 47 Department of Energy (DOE), 14, 16, 17, 19, 47 ALMR/IFR program, 27-28, 30, 84 defense waste management programs, 11, 29-30, 39-40 and MRS facility, 15, 16, 18 S&T research funding, 1, 54 WIPP compliance demonstration, 17, 99, 119 and Yucca Mountain site, 1, 16, 32, 124 Depleted uranium, 27, 386 Developing countries, proliferation concerns, 105, 106, 361, 365, 414 Development, see Demonstration and pilot projects; Research and development Dialysis, 174 DIAMEX process, 42 Dicarbollide, 42, 171, 447 (beta-)Diketones, 175 Dilution processes, 40, 357 Disasters, see Natural disasters Dissolution processes, 30, 40, 43, 147 DOE, see Department of Energy Dose, see Individual dose standard; Radiation doses Drilling, 34, 335, 336, 338 Dry-cask storage, 124, 144 ''Dual-use" concerns, 104 DuPont, 116 E Earthquakes and seismic activity, 26, 33 Eastern Europe, see Russia and former Soviet bloc EBR-1 reactor, 389, 398 EBR-II reactor, 388, 389, 398, 399 Economics, see Costs and economics Effective dose equivalent, 16, 23 Electricity, see Energy production Electrochemical separations, 39, 43-44, 46, 155 Electrodeposition, 180 Electrodialysis, 174 Electromagnetic separation, 371 Electrophoresis, 178 Electrorefining, 37, 39, 43, 47 Encapsulation, 1, 22, 32, 37 Hanford site, 16, 87, 89 Energy Policy Act (PL 102-486), 26, 34 Energy production ALMR , 108 efficiencies, 53, 81, 271-273 and health and safety risk, 108, 109, 110-111, 386, 392 projected nuclear capacity, 13-14, 77-81 passim recoveries from spent fuel, 2, 11, 18, 61-70 Energy Reorganization Act, 124 Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA), 14 Environmental impact statements, 14, 19, 118, 121 Environmental issues, 384 reactors, 142 repositories, 145 temporary storage, 143, 144 uranium processing, 137, 138, 139, 140, 141 Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and Hanford Site , 19 health-based standards, 15, 16, 26, 34, 318 standard 40CFR101 , 15, 34, 83, 336, 338, 344-348 uranium mining and processing regulation, 121 WIPP facility standards, 15, 17, 99 Yucca Mountain standards, 15, 16, 26, 34, 83n, 101, 124, 318 EPA, see Environmental Protection Agency Euratom safeguards, 361 Eurochemic, 168 Europe enrichment and reprocessing activities, 105, 106, 114-115, 117 proliferation safeguards, 361, 363

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Nuclear Wastes: Technologies for Separations and Transmutation Evaporators, 180-181 Exposure, see Radiation exposure Exxon reprocessing plant, 116 F Facilitated transport membrane process, 174 Facilities and support, 6, 118, 119 ALMR, 209-211, 215-216 ATW, 265 LWR transmutation, 120, 232-234, 389 PBR, 289-292 Phoenix, 304 proliferation issues, 106, 107, 108, 360-361 see also Integrated reprocessing facilities Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF), 57, 388, 389, 398 Fast reactors, 2, 55-56 proliferation issues, 357, 373-374 safety issues, 387, 388, 389, 391, 398 see also Advanced liquid metal reactor (ALMR); Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) Feasibility, 5-6, 81-82, 84-85 ALMR, 5, 28, 75, 85-85 ATW, 5-6, 28, 75-76, 85 LWR transmuters, 5, 27, 74-75, 84 PBR, 76-77 Phoenix, 77 Federal government, see Atomic Energy Commission; Defense production wastes; Department of Energy; Environmental Protection Agency; Government financing; Nuclear Regulatory Commission Federal Water Pollution Control Act (FWPCA), 121 Feed Materials processing Center (Fernald), 89 Fermi reactor, 389, 398, 466 Fertile nuclides, 26 Financing issues, 8, 114-115, 117, 119-120, 427-431 power plants, 118 Fissioning, see Actinide burning Fission products, 12, 23-25 groundwater solubility and transport, 1, 3, 23, 26, 33, 72 human intrusion, 23, 320 ingestion toxicity, 24, 25 packaging and waste forms, 2, 24-25, 335 repository risk, 1, 23-25, 33, 100 separations, 2, 12, 30, 38, 39, 42, 43, 44, 45, 47, 99 transmutation, 14, 50, 100 ALMR, 3, 28, 81, 100 ATW, 3, 28, 46, 81, 387 LWR, 3, 14, 27, 31, 81 reductions in inventory, 52, 72 see also Cesium; Iodine; Strontium; Technetium Flocculation, 40 Fluid fuel systems, 28, 74, 83, 85, 270-271 Fluid transport, see Groundwater dissolution and migration Fluoride salts, 38, 44 Fluoride volatility processes, 38, 44, 46, 47, 152-153, 174-175, 180 Foreign Assistance Act, 361-362, 363 France nuclear weapons program, 104 Phoenix reactor problems, 389, 398 PUREX use, 37, 41, 167, 448 repository development, 448 reprocessing activity, 40, 167, 362, 448 S&T development, 29, 42, 448, 454 UP3 reprocessing complex, 113, 115, 117, 369, 416, 418-419 Fuel fabrication, 21, 27, 31, 84, 120, 141 ALMR, 215-216 health effects, 109, 110, 141 LWR recycling, 233-234, 237-238 proliferation issues, 106, 107 regulation, 122 residual wastes, 234 Fused salt, 177-178 G Gas centrifuge process, 148, 178, 181, 357, 371-372 Gaseous diffusion, 38, 357, 371 Gaseous releases, 34 carbon-14, 26, 34, 99, 318, 338, 345 see also Atmospheric releases Gas pocketing, 271 General Electric (GE), 14, 28, 49, 54, 55, 116, 117, 201, 202, 413-414, 417, 452, 467 Generic Environmental Statement on Mixed Oxides, 118, 414 Geologic media, 385 heat capacity and thermal design, 32, 100 unsaturated, 26, 34, 100, 321, 329, 331 water saturation and infiltration, 33, 327 see also Granite repositories; Salt deposits; Tuff

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Nuclear Wastes: Technologies for Separations and Transmutation Germany repository characterization, 315 reprocessing and enrichment activities, 168, 369n, 449 sales to Iraq, 364 Glass matrices, see Vitrification Glenn-Symington Amendment, 361-362 Government financing, 8, 114-115, 117, 119, 120, 430, 431 power plants, 118 Granite repositories, 33, 34, 330, 336, 337, 494 Graphite reactors, 38, 357-358, 372-373, 390 Groundwater dissolution and migration, 1, 3, 33, 81, 82, 99, 100, 318-320, 329, 332-335, 336, 339, 340, 346 contamination caused by human intrusion, 34, 338 fission products, 1, 3, 23, 26, 33, 72 and ingestion toxicity, 23 radiation doses, 100, 328-335 H Hanford, Washington, site, 15, 116 low-level waste (LLW) disposal, 87, 93, 98 plutonium production, 37-38, 89, 95, 369 soil contamination, 87, 90-92 waste tanks, 9-10, 16-17, 18-19, 87-98, 126, 181 remediation costs, 39, 40, 93-97 passim, 191-193 repository disposal, 192-193, 467 vitrification, 19, 93, 94, 95, 96, 98, 191-192 Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) , 18-19 Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments of 1984, 19 Health-based standards, 15, 16, 26, 34, 318 Health risks, 3, 22, 23-27, 108-112, 119, 384 actinides, 24, 25-26, 108-109, 111 ALMR, 108-109, 110-111, 464, 466 carbon-14, 26, 34 fission products, 23-25 latent cancer deaths, 3, 34, 102, 108, 109, 110 once-through cycle, 3, 22, 109-110, 111, 137-145 temporary storage, 143, 144 uranium mining and processing, 3, 26-27, 74, 108, 109, 110 see also Ingestion toxicity; Radiation doses; Repository risk; Safety issues; Toxicity index Heat, decay, see Decay heat and radioactivity Heavy water reactors (HWRs), 357-358, 372-373 Hexone, 38 High-level waste (HLW), 494 defense, 16-17, 31, 32, 37, 126 see also Spent fuel (commercial LWR) Highly enriched uranium (HEU), 28, 105, 106, 356, 357, 359, 371-372 High neutron flux, 13, 14, 22, 44, 45, 50-51 in ATW, 28-29, 44, 45, 47 High-temperature gas-cooled reactors (HTGRs), 387, 390, 404, 452 Human intrusion, 16, 34, 99, 320, 336, 338, 345, 347 actinides release risks, 1, 3, 26, 81 and fast flux systems, 100 fission products risks, 23, 320 groundwater contamination caused by, 34, 338 radiation doses, 99, 111, 335-336, 337 and thermal flux systems, 100 TRU and plutonium risks, 31, 34, 82, 99, 100, 320 uranium tailing mounds, 27 WIPP facility, 99 Hydrocarbons, 42 Hydrogen fluoride, 44 I Idaho Chemical Processing Site, 16, 39 Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, 17, 54, 126 Imports and exports Iraq, 364 nuclear materials, 360, 367-368 nuclear technology and systems, 105, 361, 362, 364, 366 India proliferation concerns, 105, 358, 360, 361, 362, 414 reprocessing activities, 105, 168 research activities, 449 Individual dose standard, 16, 34, 317 Infiltration, 26, 27, 33 Ingestion toxicity, 23-26 Inhalation toxicity, 23 Injury and disease, 109, 110 Inorganic exchangers, 41, 43, 126, 172-173 Institutional issues, 8, 12, 16, 118, 119, 120 in early repository decisions, 14, 15 Integral Fast Reactor (IFR), 14, 27-28, 30, 49, 55, 84-85, 107, 108 , 369-370, 375-376, 388-389, 398, 399, 452 separation processes, 43-44, 45-46, 155-158

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Nuclear Wastes: Technologies for Separations and Transmutation Integrated reprocessing facilities, 13, 392 ATW, 28, 46, 394 and proliferation concerns, 107, 108 transportation issues, 102, 103, 104 Integrated S&T systems, 6, 11, 13, 22, 81-82, 119 health and safety impacts, 386-387, 392 Interim storage, see Monitored retrievable storage International activities, reprocessing, 54-55, 167-168, 447-455 passim. See also Proliferation issues International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), 104, 356, 453 inspections, 105, 106-107, 359, 360-361, 363-365, 366 safeguard system, 104 n, 105, 106, 355, 356, 357, 358-361, 363-365, 366-367, 373 International Fuel Cycle Evaluation Group (INFCE), 107, 362, 414, 415 Intrusion, see Human intrusion Inventory fraction, 83 Iodine (I) groundwater transport, 1, 3, 23, 26, 33, 329, 332 packaging and waste forms, 24, 25, 31, 35, 81, 82, 84 repository risk, 23-25, 330, 331, 343 separations, 44, 400 transmutation, 2, 3, 14, 24, 25, 31, 50, 81 Ion exchange and adsorption, 29, 39, 40, 41, 42-43, 47, 95, 126, 172-173, 179, 495 Ionic solvents, 38 Iran, proliferation concerns, 365, 366 Iraq Israeli air strike, 106, 108n weapons program and special inspections, 105, 355, 361, 363-364, 371 Iron hydroxide, 38, 40 Irradiated Source Program, 89 Isolation standards, 12, 15, 17 Isopropyl benzene, 42 Ispra Joint Research Center, 449, 452, 453 Israel air strike against Iraqi reactor, 106, 108n proliferation concerns, 105, 360, 362 Italy, 449, 453 J Japan enrichment and reprocessing activity, 41, 105, 106, 168, 362, 363, 367-368, 449, 454 Rokkashomura reprocessing plant, 113, 115, 117, 369, 416, 419 S&T activities, 449-450, 454 Jimson weed, 177 K Karlsruhe, Germany, 168, 449, 452, 453, 454 Korea, see North Korea; South Korea K-25 Plant, 89 L Landfills, see Surface storage and disposal LANL, see Los Alamos National Laboratory Lanthanides, 28, 84 Lanthanum fluoride, 38 Laser-induced separation, 175-176, 371, 372 Lead isotopes (Pb), 26, 386 Lead targets, 28 Leukemia, 25 Licensing and certification ALMRs, 28, 466, 467 ATW, 29 enrichment and separation facilities, 122 interim storage, 18, 123-124 mills, 121 nuclear power plants, 13, 122 Phoenix, 305-306 repositories, 1, 12, 15, 16, 99, 101, 118, 124 Light-water reactors, see Advanced light-water reactor; LWR transmutation technology; Spent fuel (commercial LWR) Limited Test Ban Treaty, 367 Liquid-cooled graphite reactors (LGR), 38, 353-354, 357-358, 372-373 , 390 Liquid defense wastes, 16, 39 Liquid-metal reactor, see Advanced liquid metal reactor (ALMR) Lithium (Li), 28, 39, 44, 148 LLW, see Low-level waste Los Alamos Molten Plutonium Reactor Experiment (LAMPRE), 39 Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), 14, 17, 47, 49, 54, 57, 89, 452 Low-enriched uranium (LEU), 105 Low-level waste (LLW), 386, 497 defense, 16, 37 disposal, 119, 124

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Nuclear Wastes: Technologies for Separations and Transmutation Low-Level Waste Policy Act, 119 LWR (light-water reactor) transmutation technology, 2, 4, 5, 14, 27, 29, 56, 78, 79-80, 224-241 economics, 5, 75, 78, 84, 112, 239-241 feasibility, 5, 27, 74-75, 84 and repository disposal, 100, 403 research and development, 27, 74-75, 84, 126, 239 safety issues, 111, 238-239, 387, 389-390, 391, 401-403 self-generated recycling, 27, 29, 31, 68-70, 82-83, 225-227, 233-234 , 237-238 separations for, 30, 45, 402-403 LWR waste, see Spent fuel (commercial LWR) Lyons, Kansas, salt mine, 14 M Magnesium salt, 38 Magnetic separation, 178, 180 Manhattan Engineering District, 37 Materials accountancy, 104n, 107, 359-360 Mechanical disassembly operations, 37, 38, 39, 147 Membrane processes, 173-174 Metallic fuels, 28, 29-30, 38-39, 40, 43, 45, 215 Metallurgical Laboratory, 37-38 Methylisobutyl-ketone (hexone), 38 Microfiltration, 173 Military applications, see Defense production wastes; Proliferation issues Military deterrence, 106, 365 Minor actinides (MA), 32, 33, 72, 84, 404 targets, 306-307, 396 Mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel, 27, 28, 30, 45, 84, 215 Molten salt processes, 38-39, 43, 147-148, 153-154, 172 Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE), 38, 44 Molybdenum, 44 Monitored retrievable storage (MRS), 1, 15, 16, 326 linkage to repository development, 16, 18 policy issues, 18 political support, 12, 16 Morris, Illinois, reprocessing plant, 165 Mound laboratory, 89 MOX, see Mixed-oxide fuel MRS, see Monitored retrievable storage N National Academy of Sciences, 14, 15, 16, 101 National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements, 3, 108, 109, 110 National diversion, 106-107, 358, 359, 373, 374 National Energy Strategy, 13-14 National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA), 414 National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES), 121 National Research Council, 26, 34, 124, 318 Natural agents, 177 Natural disasters, 26, 33-34 Neptunium (Np), 25, 31, 40, 72, 83 decay heat, 39 and oxidizing conditions, 3, 26, 38, 82, 329 repository risk, 25, 33, 34, 343 separation and extraction, 3, 38, 41, 45, 47 Netherlands, 450 Neutron bombardment, 1, 21-22 Neutron capture, 21, 23, 50, 51 Neutron flux, see Fast reactors; High neutron flux; Thermal reactors Neutron production, 13, 29 New Mexico repository sites, 14 Nitrate salts, 38 Nitric acid, 38, 40, 41, 42, 46, 147 Nonaqueous separations, 13, 14, 29-30, 38-39, 43 for ATW systems, 46-47, 262-263 electrochemical separation process, 39, 43-44, 46, 155 fluoride volatility processes, 38, 44, 46, 47, 152-153, 174-175, 180 molten salt processes, 38-39, 43, 147-148, 153-154, 172 salt transport process, 43, 177-178 Nonproliferation, see Proliferation issues Nonradioactive materials reduction, 40, 47 Nonradiological health risks, 109, 110 North Korea, proliferation concerns, 105, 355, 364-365 NPT, see Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty (NPT), 105, 106, 356, 358, 360-361 , 362, 363, 366-367, 414, 415 Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), 118, 414 containment regulations, 1, 23, 32 dose reduction policy, 110-111 LLW criteria, 44, 124 production facility regulations, 122, 123 Regulation 10CFR60 , 15, 23, 32, 34 repository licensing, 124

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Nuclear Wastes: Technologies for Separations and Transmutation retrieval provisions, 18, 32 technical criteria and standards, 16, 34 uranium mining and processing regulation, 121-122 and WIPP project, 15 Nuclear suppliers, see Imports and exports Nuclear Suppliers Group, 366 Nuclear Waste Fund, 15, 18 Nuclear Waste Policy Act (NWPA), 1n, 11, 14, 15, 17, 18, 114, 124, 415, 430 Nuclear Waste Policy Amendments Act (NWPAA) of 1987, 1n, 15, 17, 18 Nuclear weapons, see Defense production wastes; Proliferation issues O Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), 28, 38, 44, 54, 369, 450 health risk study, 3, 108, 110 waste storage and management, 17, 39, 98 Occupational health and safety, 109, 110 uranium mining and milling, 74, 109, 110 Office of the Nuclear Waste Negotiator, 18 OMEGA program, 449-450 Once-through fuel cycle, 1-2, 10, 11, 102, 136-145 economics, 113, 119, 416 health risks, 3, 22, 109-110, 111, 137-145 proliferation issues, 104-106, 108, 355-358, 362 safety issues, 390-391, 392, 408-410 transportation issues, 102, 103, 104 On-line refueling systems, proliferation issues, 359, 372-373 On-site reprocessing, see Integrated reprocessing facilities On-site storage, see Pool storage; Reactor site storage Operating costs, 77, 78, 114, 426-427, 443-444 Organic complexant concentrate, 89 Organic diluents, 41, 42 Organic extractants, 40, 41, 42-43, 44, 46, 48, 126 Organic resins, 172 Organization for Economic Coordination and Development/Nuclear Energy Agency (OECD/NEA) , 453-454 cost study, 7, 113, 114, 116, 416, 427, 434, 436 Oxidation-reduction technology, 38 Oxidation states, 40, 44 Oxide fuels, 39, 46, 147, 402 Oxidizing conditions, 1, 329 and carbon-14 release, 34 neptunium sensitivity, 3, 26, 38, 82, 329 Ozonolysis, 179 P Packaging and waste forms, 3, 9, 99, 100, 101, 315, 329 carbon-14, 26, 31, 34, 84, 100 elevated temperatures, 31, 101, 327, 328 fission products, 2, 24-25, 335 low-solubility, 27, 31, 34-35, 81 optimized, 27, 34-35, 82, 335 transportation, 102-103 see also Encapsulation Pakistan proliferation concerns, 105, 360, 362-363 uranium enrichment, 104, 357, 362 Particle-bed reactor (PBR), 2, 14, 49, 70, 73, 285-297 cooling system, 390 economics, 77, 297 research and development, 76-77, 297 safety issues, 292, 296, 386, 387, 390, 403-406 Permian basin, 14 "Phase-out" scenario, see Declining nuclear power scenario Phoenix accelerator, 2, 49, 57, 77, 297-308 economis, 307-308 and repository disposal, 397 safety issues, 305-306, 386, 388, 395-397 separations for, 396-397 Pipe breaks, 74 Plutonium, human intrusion risks, 31, 34, 82, 99, 100, 320 Plutonium (Pu), 12, 21, 25, 26, 28, 31, 37, 38, 39, 40, 83 proliferation issues, 31, 105, 106, 107, 108, 356, 357, 359, 367-368 , 370-371, 372-373 recovery and purification, 3, 29, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 43, 47 recycling, 11, 14, 18, 27, 31, 39, 82-83, 85 repository risk, 31, 32, 33, 34, 82 transmutation, 2, 27, 31 ALMR, 31, 57, 58 LWR methods, 14, 57-58, 84, 224-225

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Nuclear Wastes: Technologies for Separations and Transmutation see also PUREX (plutonium and uranium extraction) process Policy issues, 8, 17-19, 118-119, see also Proliferation issues commercial spent fuel, 17-18, 31 defense wastes, 18-19 Pool storage, 22, 105, 143, 357, 362, 373 at Hanford site, 87 regulation, 123-124 Population radiation doses, 3, 108, 317, 318 Post-Cold War policies, 106, 365-366 Power production, see Energy production Power Reactor, Innovative, Small Module (PRISM) program, 14, 55, 202 Precipitation, 176-177 Pressler Amendment, 363 Pressure-tube failure, 74, 271 PRISM program, 14, 55, 202 Private industry financing, 114, 115, 117, 119, 120, 427-429 power plants, 118 Process losses, 101 separations, 3, 4, 13, 30, 31, 38, 40, 47, 58, 84 transmutation, 71, 83-84 Proliferation issues, 8, 18, 31, 104-108, 125, 355-378 diversions and theft, 105, 106-107, 358, 359, 360, 373 international safeguards, 104n, 105, 106, 108, 355, 356, 357, 358-361, 363-365, 366-367, 371-373 treaty abrogation, 106, 107-108, 374-375 Promethium (Pm), 38 Protactinium (Pa), 26, 31, 33, 44, 386 groundwater transport, 333 Proton beams, 28, 29, 56, 85, 244-246, 273-276, 387, 393, 452 in Phoenix accelerator, 57, 388 Prototypes, see Demonstration and pilot projects Public acceptance and opinion, 8, 119, 125 defense wastes, 18 Hanford waste tank disposal, 94, 96 geologic repositories, 11, 12, 14, 16, 118, 386 nuclear power, 13, 118, 414 Public health, see Health risks PURETEX process, 448 PUREX (plutonium and uranium extraction) process, 3, 14, 37, 38, 40, 41-42, 46, 111, 147, 151-152 and defense wastes, 14, 16 HLW generation, 31, 42 for LWR, 29, 30, 45, 47, 402-403 process losses, 31, 58, 84 safety issues, 391 Pyroprocessing, 3, 28, 29, 31, 37, 38-39, 43, 48, 147, 148 costs, 7, 40, 43, 112, 417, 441-442, 443 defense wastes, 29-30, 43 proliferation issues, 107, 369-371 research and development, 28, 29-30, 43, 46, 47, 155-158 safety issues, 391, 399, 400 R Radiation doses, 108, 317, 328-336, 337 background, 3, 26, 34, 111 carbon-14, 26, 34 from groundwater releases, 100, 328-335 from human intrusion, 99, 111, 335-336, 337 individual dose standard, 16, 34, 317 population, 3, 108, 317, 318 transmutation effects, 3, 22, 110-111, 341-344 Radiation exposures, 3, 108, 110, 111, 121, 492 human intrusion, 109-110 repository, 99, 328-336 uranium mining and milling, 3, 27, 386 Radioactivity, see Decay heat and radioactivity; Reactivity control; Reactivity transients Radiolysis and radiation degradation, 3, 40, 42, 43, 47 explosive gases, 74, 271 Radionuclides, see Actinides; Fission products; names of specific elements ; Radium (Ra), 26, 33n, 334 Radon (Rn), 27, 121, 386 Rare earth metals potential for recycling, 2, 11 separations, 42, 43 Reactivity control ALMR, 73 ATW, 29, 85 LWR transmuters, 27, 73, 84, 236, 387, 402 Reactivity transients ATW, 29, 73, 85, 268-270, 271, 387-388, 393 PBR, 390 Phoenix, 73-74

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Nuclear Wastes: Technologies for Separations and Transmutation Reactors, see Advanced light-water reactor; Advanced liquid metal reactor (ALMR); Fast reactors; Graphite reactors; Heavy water reactors; Integral Fast Reactor (IFR); Integrated reprocessing facilities; LWR transmutation technology; On-line refueling systems; Particle-bed reactor (PBR); Reactor site storage; Spent fuel (commercial LWR); Thermal reactors Reactor site storage, 1, 11, 18, 22, 119, 123-124. See also Pool storage Reagan Administration policies, 15, 18, 362 Recycling, 99, 233-234, 237-238 plutonium, 11, 14, 18, 27, 31, 39, 82-83, 85 rare earth metals, 2, 11 uranium, 2, 11, 27, 31 REDOX process, 38, 147, 150-151 Reducing conditions, 1, 3, 33, 329 Regulations and standards, 8, 120-125 defense wastes, 18-19 health-based, 15, 16, 26, 34, 318 monitored retrievable storage, 18, 124 packaging, 1, 23, 32-33, 103 and power plants, 13, 118 and repository development, 12, 16, 118, 124 retrieval of spent fuel, 18, 32 separations plants, 30, 122 by states, 118, 119, 124-125 Release limits EPA regulations, 26, 34, 83, 101, 121, 124, 318, 336-340, 344-348 NRC regulations, 1, 34, 121 Release pathways, see Atmospheric releases; Gaseous releases; Groundwater dissolution and migration; Human intrusion Remote handling, 13, 17 as diversion safeguard, 107 fuel fabrication, 31, 120 and pyroprocessing, 37 in separations processes, 38 Repositories (geologic), 1, 11, 145, 490, 494 access to and retrieval from, 2, 10, 18, 32 ALMR waste, 100, 101, 341-344, 398, 400-401, 466-468 ATW wastes, 83, 124, 395 barrier systems, 32, 34, 381, 486 capacity and limits, 1-2, 7-8, 15, 18, 99, 100, 102 costs, 12, 16, 101 and defense wastes, 2, 15, 17, 18 emplacement procedures, 100, 315, 316, 325-326, 492 extension of operating period, 2 history, 14-15, 315, 357, 358 need and scheduling, 2, 10, 12, 16, 101-102, 349, 466-467 of second repository, 82, 99, 101, 102, 118 oxidizing conditions, 1, 3, 26, 34, 38, 82, 329 performance assessments, 99-100, 315-320 political support, 12, 16, 18 proliferation issues, 106 reducing conditions, 1, 3, 33, 329 site characterization, 101, 315 see also Geologic media; Licensing and certification; Packaging and waste forms ; Repository risk Repository risk, 33-34, 145, 317-320, 385-387, 392, 401 actinides, 1, 3, 25-26, 33, 81, 108-109, 111 fission products, 1, 23-25, 33, 100 once-through cycle, 328 postclosure time scales, 23, 31, 33 proof of safety, 12, 32-33 reduction-and-packaging strategies, 3, 24-25, 35, 37 transmutation technologies reduction of, 3, 33, 34, 35, 81, 320-328 , 348-349, 350, 386-387 see also Gaseous releases; Groundwater dissolution and migration; Health risks; Human intrusion Reprocessing, 21, 24, 25, 29, 30, 82, 99, 120 for ALMR feedstock, 28, 61-66, 82-83, 209-211, 216-217, 440-442 alternative technologies, 12-13, 40, 164-168 for ATW feedstock, 28, 30, 47-48, 66-68, 82, 247, 249 health risks, 108-109, 110 international activities, 167-168, 447-452 for LWR self-generated recycle, 27, 29, 31, 68-70, 82-83, 225-227 policy issues, 17-18, 31, 166-167 proliferation issues, 31, 105, 106, 107, 356-357, 361-363, 369-371 and repository risk, 100, 341-344 see also Fuel fabrication; Integrated reprocessing facilities; PUREX (plutonium and uranium extraction) process; Pyroprocessing; Separations technology Republic of Korea, see South Korea

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Nuclear Wastes: Technologies for Separations and Transmutation Research and development, 2, 4, 9, 10, 13, 14, 82, 118, 125-126 ALMR, 28, 54, 75, 84-85, 126, 349 ATW, 28, 29, 48, 75-76, 394, 452 DOE funding, 1, 54 international activities, 54-55, 167-168, 447-455 LWR transmutation, 27, 74-75, 84, 126, 239 PBR, 76-77, 297 pyroprocessing, 28, 29-30, 43, 46, 47, 155-158 separations, 3-4, 29, 30, 32, 37, 42, 168-178, 448 transmutation, 12-13, 54, 74-77, 84-85, 448 see also Demonstration and pilot projects Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), 19, 119, 124 Retrievable storage, 2, 10, 14, 17, 18. See also Monitored retrievable storage Reverse osmosis, 174 Risk, see Health risks; Repository risk; Safety issues Robotics, 13, 95, 107 Rocky Flats Plant, 17, 89 Rokkashomura reprocessing plant, 113, 115, 117, 369, 416, 419 Russia and former Soviet bloc BN-350 reactor problems, 389, 398 enrichment and reprocessing activities, 37, 41, 105, 168, 362, 363 , 373 proliferation concerns, 104, 106, 365, 366-367 S&T activities, 41, 451 S Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA), 121, 124 Safety issues, 383-392 ALMR, 28, 73, 211-214, 215, 387, 388-389, 397-401 ATW, 28, 29, 73-74, 111, 265-273, 385, 387-388, 391, 392-395 see also Health risks; Repository risk Salt cakes, 16, 32, 39, 89, 95, 98, 194 Salt deposits, 14, 315, 502 Salting agents, 38, 147 Salt transport processes, 43, 177-178 Samarium (Sm), 39 Savannah River site, 16, 39, 89, 98, 116 processing facility, 16, 126, 192, 193-199, 369 TRU wastes, 17 Scale-up, see Demonstration and pilot projects Scherrer, paul, Institute, 451, 454 Separation factors, 30, 40, 43, 47, 148 Separations technology, 13, 371 actinides, 2, 13, 29, 39, 40, 41, 43, 45 ALMR, 3, 30, 43, 45-46, 389, 399-400 ATW, 3-4, 30, 43, 44, 46-48, 262-263, 394 defense wastes, Hanford tanks, 9-10, 16-17, 32, 39, 40, 42, 88-89, 92-96, 98, 180-181 economics, 37, 39, 112, 117, 442-443 history, 37-39 process losses, 3, 4, 13, 30, 31, 38, 40, 47, 58, 84 research and development, 3-4, 29, 30, 32, 37, 42, 168-178, 448 safety issues, 30-31, 37, 40, 111, 385, 386, 391-392 and waste forms, 34, 99 waste reduction and minimization, 13, 39-40, 47 see also Aqueous separations; Integrated S&T systems; Nonaqueous separations; PUREX (plutonium and uranium extraction) process; Pyroprocessing Shallow burial, see Surface storage and disposal Shutdown, 21, 29, 385, 388 of accelerators, 29, 267-268, 387, 393 Siderophores, 177 Silicotitanates, 43 Siting issues, 8, 18, 118, 124, 504 reactors, 142 repositories, 101, 315 uranium processing, 137, 138, 139, 140, 141 Sludges, 17, 32, 39, 89, 92, 180 Sludge washing, 9-10, 32, 92, 93, 94-95, 98, 191, 194 Slurry fuels, 28, 29, 40, 46 Sodium carbonate, 40 Sodium nitrate, 40, 89, 98 Sodium nitrite, 40, 89, 98 Sodium void coefficient, 28, 73 Soft donor complexants, 171 Soil contamination, 17 at Hanford site, 87, 90-92 Solidified defense waste (calcine), 16 in civilian repository, 18 Hanford tanks, 95, 96 Solvent extraction processes, 96. See also PUREX (plutonium and uranium extraction) process; TRUEX (transuranic extraction) processes

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Nuclear Wastes: Technologies for Separations and Transmutation South Africa proliferation concerns, 105, 362, 363 uranium enrichment, 105, 357 South Korea relations with North Korea, 364, 365n S&T activities, 450 Soviet Union, see Russia and former Soviet bloc Spent fuel (commercial LWR), 1, 11, 32-33, 39 energy recovery from, 2, 11, 18, 61-70 in geologic repositories, 1-2, 14, 15-16, 18, 22 government custody, 18, 119 research activities, 125-126 retrieval, 2, 10, 18 separations technology, 2, 3, 29-31, 39, 40, 43, 47 toxicity from ingestion, 23, 24 TRU content, 2, 15-16 see also Actinides; Fission products; Once-through fuel cycle; Reprocessing SPIN program, 448 Spontaneous fission (SF), 21 Stainless steel cladding, 147 Standards, see Regulations and standards State regulations, 118, 119, 124-125 Steam generators, 217 Stereospecific extractants, 169 S&T integrated systems, see Integrated S&T systems Storage, see Monitored retrievable storage; Pool storage; Reactor site storage; Repositories (geologic); Retrievable storage; Tank storage Strontium (Sr), 24, 33, 335 decay heat, 11, 23, 24, 32, 39, 323, 326 in defense wastes, 16, 87, 89, 95, 98 separation and extraction, 40, 42, 43 storage and disposal, 47, 326, 342 transmutation, 50 Subcritical reactor assemblies, 13, 28-29, 56, 57, 85 Subnational groups, 107 Supercritical fluid extraction, 172 Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986, 19 Surface storage and disposal, 124, 144, 388 Class C and LLW waste, 28, 44, 47, 326 TRU waste, 17, 28 Sweden repository characterization, 315 reprocessing activities, 33n, 451 Switzerland, 451 T Tails and tailings, 26-27, 137, 386 TALSPEAK process, 169-170, 447 Tank storage, 11, 16-17 Savannah River site, 193-199 see also Hanford, Washington, site, waste tanks Targets and target nuclides, 16, 21, 24, 25, 28-29, 37, 44, 45, 73 , 120 in ATW system, 28-29, 46, 56, 246-247, 266-267, 280 minor actinide, 306-307, 396 in Phoenix accelerator, 398 in separations processes, 37, 43 TBP, see Tributyl phosphate Technetium (Tc), 38, 39, 40 groundwater transport, 1, 3, 23, 26, 33, 72, 329, 332 packaging and waste forms, 24, 25, 31, 81, 82 repository risk, 23-25, 33, 330, 331, 332 separation, 30, 40, 42, 44, 178-180 transmutation, 2, 3, 14, 24, 25, 31, 50, 72, 81 "Technical Bases for Yucca Mountain Standards,"; 16, 26, 34, 328 Technical issues in early repository studies, 14 separations, 30-31, 39-40 in S&T considerations, 12-13 Tellurium, 47 Temperature, see Decay heat and radioactivity Temporary storage, see Monitored retrievable storage; Pool storage; Reactor site storage; Retrievable storage Terrorism, 106, 107, 365 Thermal load, see Decay heat and radioactivity Thermal reactors, 2, 3, 26, 56, 100. See also Accelerator transmutation of waste (ATW); LWR transmutation technology Thermal-to-electrical efficiencies, 53, 81 ATW, 81, 271-273 Thorium (Th), 26, 27, 388, 393 THORP reprocessing plant, 113, 115, 117, 369, 416, 418, 427 Time scales and requirements development ALMR, 5, 75, 84 ATW, 6, 75, 76, 85 LWR transmuters, 5, 75, 84 repository risk, 23, 31, 33

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Nuclear Wastes: Technologies for Separations and Transmutation S&T operations, 6, 13, 77-81, 82, 82-83, 119, 120 ALMR, 83, 209, 463-464 ATW, 83, 282-284 LWR, 83 Titanates, 43 Toxicity index, 22-23 actinides, 25 Trade, see Imports and exports Tramex in high nitrate solutions, 170 Transmutation technology, 4-5, 7-8, 18, 22, 49-58, 123 actinides, 3, 26, 348 alternative scenarios, 60-72, 78-81 deployment, 53, 77-82 engineering and materials issues, 53-54, 74 facilities, 120 and Hanford tank wastes, 10, 16-17, 32, 39, 97, 98 health impacts, 3, 22, 109-110, 111 process losses, 71, 83-84 radiation dose reduction, 3, 22, 110-111, 341-344 research and development, 12-13, 54, 74-77, 84-85, 448 safety issues, 53, 72-74, 385, 391 separations requirements and goals, 44-48 thermal and electrical efficiencies, 53, 81 and uranium tails and tailings, 27 waste reductions, 2, 82 see also Accelerator transmutation of waste (ATW); Actinide burning; Advanced liquid metal reactor (ALMR); CURE (Clean Use of Reactor Energy) study; Integrated S&T systems; LWR transmutation technology; Particle-bed reactor (PBR); Phoenix accelerator Transportation issues, 102-103, 104 ALMR, 375, 378 ATW, 376, 377 health risks, 102, 109, 110 Transport processes, 177-178 Transuranics (TRU) decay heat, 32, 100 in defense waste, 9, 15, 16, 17 Hanford site, 17, 89, 97 and groundwater releases, 33, 81, 334-335 human intrusion risks, 31, 34, 82, 99, 100, 320 production, 2, 51 in reactor spent fuel, 2, 15-16, 28 repository risk, 16 separations, 30, 40, 42, 45, 99 transmutation, 2, 4-5, 14, 50-51, 58-71, 82-84 ALMR, 2, 4-5, 14, 28, 61-66, 71, 82, 83, 84-85, 207-209 ATW, 2, 5, 66-68, 71, 82, 83, 85 constant power scenarios, 61-64, 65, 66-71, 83 declining power scenario, 64-66, 68, 69, 70-71, 83 LWR methods, 2, 5, 27, 30, 68-70, 71, 82, 83, 84, 89, 225-228 process losses, 71, 83-84 reductions in inventory, 7-8, 52, 53, 58-71, 82, 83, 100 uranium ore requirements, 84 Transuranic (TRU) ratio, time constant, 71 Treaties, see Abrogation of treaties; Bilateral agreements; Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty Tributyl phosphate (TBP), 38, 40, 41, 42, 89, 151 TRUEX (transuranic extraction) processes, 3, 30, 40, 42, 47 CMPO extractant, 29, 42, 448 safety issues, 391 Tuff, 33, 34, 315, 331, 339, 340, 346, 347, 506 Tungsten targets, 28 U Ultrafiltration, 173 Underground tanks, see Tank storage Unit costs, 115-116, 117, 431, 443, 444 United Kingdom fast reactor problems, 389, 398 nuclear weapons program, 104 reprocessing activity, 29, 37, 40, 41, 167, 362, 451 S&T activities, 451-452, 454 THORP reprocessing plant, 113, 115, 117, 369, 416, 418, 427 United Nations Security Council, 105, 351, 366 Unsaturated repositories, 26, 34, 100, 321, 329, 331 UP3 reprocessing complex, 113, 115, 117, 369, 416, 418-419 Uranium characteristics, 21, 25-26 toxicity, 25, 26 Uranium dioxide (UO2), 3, 21, 22, 140 Uranium enrichment, 28, 31, 38, 136, 139, 415 health risks, 109, 110, 139 proliferation concerns, 105, 106, 361-363, 371-372 regulation, 121-122 tails and depleted uranium, 27, 386

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Nuclear Wastes: Technologies for Separations and Transmutation Uranium hexafluoride (UF6), 27, 38, 44, 109, 110, 138, 148 Uranium mining and milling, 26-27, 137, 362, 415 health and safety issues, 3, 26-27, 74, 108, 109, 110, 137, 391, 392 occupational health and safety, 74, 109, 110 radiation exposure, 3, 27, 386 regulation, 121, 124 Uranium recovery and reprocessing, 31, 333-334 economics, 118, 119 enrichment tails, 27 recycling, 2, 11, 27, 31 separation methods, 14, 38, 39, 41, 43, 44 see also PUREX (plutonium and uranium extraction) process Uranium waste content, 27, 33n Hanford tanks, 17, 89, 91, 92, 95 U.S. Enrichment Corporation, 121 U.S. government, see Defense production wastes; Department of Energy; Environmental Protection Agency; Nuclear Regulatory Commission; Policy issues Utility financing, 114, 115, 117, 120, 429-430 power plants, 118 V Vitrification (glass matrices), 2, 16, 507 of Hanford tank waste, 19, 93, 94, 95, 96, 98, 191-192 of PUREX process wastes, 31 Savannah River facility, 16, 192, 193, 196-197 Volatility processes, 38, 44, 46, 47, 152-153, 174-175, 180 Volcanic activity, 26, 33 W Washington State Department of Ecology, 18-19 Washington State Hazardous Waste Management Act, 19 Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), 14-15, 99, 119 and TRU wastes, 17 Waste isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), EPA standards, 15, 17, 99 Wastes, see Defense production wastes; Fission products; Packaging and waste forms; Process losses; Solidified defense waste; Spent fuel (commercial LWR); Transuranics (TRU) Water, see Groundwater dissolution and migration; Infiltration Weapons, see Defense production wastes; Proliferation issues Westinghouse Hanford Co., 14, 49, 54, 96, 452 West Valley Fuel Reprocessing Plant, 16, 39, 118, 165, 199, 466 WIPP, see Waste Isolation Pilot Plant WIPP Land Withdrawal Act (PL 102-579), 15, 17 X Xenon, 400 Y Y-12 Plant, 89 Yucca Mountain, Nevada, site, 1, 15-16, 119, 315-316, 336n carbon-14 releases, 26, 33n, 34, 99-100, 101 decay heat and thermal design, 8, 31, 32, 58, 100, 101, 317, 328, 467 EPA standards, 15, 16, 26, 34, 83n, 101, 124, 318 human intrusion scenarios, 16, 34 waste package performance, 32-33 Z Zeolites, 43, 95, 199 Zirconium alloy (Zircaloy) cladding, 34, 45, 83, 89, 141, 147 Zirconium phosphate, 38