Index

A

AAG. See Association of American Geographers (AAG)

AAG Directory, 188

Age Discrimination in Employment Act, 209

Agricultural policy, global, 130

AIDS, 21, 24, 96

American Association for the Advancement of Science, 167

American Geographical Society, 12, 169, 218

Analysis of geographic data. See Display and analysis, technique of

Animated maps. See Spatial representation, dynamic

ArcInfo, 63

Association of American Geographers (AAG), 6, 12, 138n, 148, 169-171, 187, 204, 218

sponsors, corporate, 215-216

Autocovariance, 68

Automated mapping systems, 58

B

Baby boomers, 89

Bayesian weighting, 55, 68

BGGS. See Britannica Global Geography System (BGGS)

Biodiversity, loss of, 80-83

Biogeography, 34-35

Biophysical environments, 32

BLS. See Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS)

Boom-and-bust cycle, 91

Bosnia, partition of, 21-22

Britannica Global Geography System (BGGS), 156

Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), 213-214

Bureau of the Budget Task Force on Federal Flood Control, 125

Bureau of Transportation Statistics, 126

Business strategies, developing effective, 4, 111.

See also Retail marketing

C

Campesino federations, 130

Canadian Association of Geographers, 219

Cartographic Requirements, Coordinating and Standards Program, 125

Cartography, technique of, 3, 39, 57-58

Center for Nuclear Waste and Regulatory Analysis (CNWRA), 123

Central Tendency and Variation, 76



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--> Index A AAG. See Association of American Geographers (AAG) AAG Directory, 188 Age Discrimination in Employment Act, 209 Agricultural policy, global, 130 AIDS, 21, 24, 96 American Association for the Advancement of Science, 167 American Geographical Society, 12, 169, 218 Analysis of geographic data. See Display and analysis, technique of Animated maps. See Spatial representation, dynamic ArcInfo, 63 Association of American Geographers (AAG), 6, 12, 138n, 148, 169-171, 187, 204, 218 sponsors, corporate, 215-216 Autocovariance, 68 Automated mapping systems, 58 B Baby boomers, 89 Bayesian weighting, 55, 68 BGGS. See Britannica Global Geography System (BGGS) Biodiversity, loss of, 80-83 Biogeography, 34-35 Biophysical environments, 32 BLS. See Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) Boom-and-bust cycle, 91 Bosnia, partition of, 21-22 Britannica Global Geography System (BGGS), 156 Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), 213-214 Bureau of the Budget Task Force on Federal Flood Control, 125 Bureau of Transportation Statistics, 126 Business strategies, developing effective, 4, 111. See also Retail marketing C Campesino federations, 130 Canadian Association of Geographers, 219 Cartographic Requirements, Coordinating and Standards Program, 125 Cartography, technique of, 3, 39, 57-58 Center for Nuclear Waste and Regulatory Analysis (CNWRA), 123 Central Tendency and Variation, 76

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--> Chaotic dynamics. See Complexity Charlottesville, Virginia, Summit, 1, 8 Cities, studies of, 37-38, 132. See also Urban climatology; Urban policy; Urban poverty Civil rights, 117-119 Civil unrest in Los Angeles, 78-79 Climate change and geography, 24-26, 55-57. See also Climatology; Urban climatology Climatology, 34-35 CNWRA, See Center for Nuclear Waste and Regulatory Analysis (NWRA) COHMAP, See Cooperative Holocene Mapping Project (COHMAP) Cold War, demise of, 95, 129 College Boards, 27 Colorado River system, 114-115 Commission on College Geography, 189 Commuting intensity, 96 Comparative longitudinal studies. See Longitudinal studies, need for Complexity, 4-5, 31, 71, 75-76, 92-93 defined, 14n disequilibrium within, 140-141 Computational techniques, 40, 59-60 Computer software, 58, 146. See also Geographic information systems (GISs) Computers, Environments, and Urban Systems, 89 Computing power, 99 Conflict. See Ethnic conflict and geography; Political conflict and geography Convention Placement Service (CoPS), 204-206 Cooperation. See Ethnic conflict and geography; Political conflict and geography Cooperative Holocene Mapping Project (COHMAP), 24-25, 59 CoPS, See Convention Placement Service (CoPS) Critical issues and geography, 16-27 Cultural geography, 45 D Decision making, geography's contributions to, 109-137 history of, 136-137 international, 127-135 national, 117-127 regional and local, 111-117 Democratization, global. See Cold War, demise of Digest of Education Statistics, 189 Digital geographic databases, 43 Display and analysis, technique of, 3, 57-69 need for improvement in, 3, 57-69, 162 Dispute Resolution, 117 Disturbance regimes, 81-82 Dual Independent Map Encoding system, 43 Dynamic equilibrium hypothesis, 59 E Economic health and geography, 4, 10, 17-18, 77-79, 93, 98, 101-102, 129-132 restructuring for competitiveness, 119-120 Ecosystem processes. See Environmental change Educate America Act. See Goals 2000: The Educate America Act Education and geography. See Geographic education Electoral reapportionment, 118-119 EMAP. See Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP) Emergency response planning. See Hazard management; Nuclear power plant accidents Employment forecast, 187-217 Energy crisis, 117-118 Environment and Planning D: Society and Space, 36 Environmental change, 4, 77-85, 99-101 degradation, 11, 18-19, 33, 91-92 and democratization, 131-132 human attitudes about, 33 human impact on, 32-33, 71, 97-99 impact on humankind, 32-33

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--> Environmental dynamics, 34-36 Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP), 126 Environmental Spatial Analysis Tool (ESAT) project, 126 Environmental-societal dynamics, 32-34, 71-73 EPA. See U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Epidemiology, 72. See also Spatial diffusion and epidemics Epistemologies. See Geography, epistemologies of Erosion, 84-85 ESAT, See Environmental Spatial Analysis Tool (ESAT) project ESDA. See Exploratory spatial data analysis (ESDA) Ethnic conflict and geography, 19-21, 37-38, 61, 75, 86, 117 Evapotranspiration, 48, 80 Exploratory spatial data analysis (ESDA), 64 F Famine. See Food crises Federal Geographic Data Committee, 125 Fieldwork, technique of, 3, 49, 51-52, 159, 168 Fire, effect on ecosystems. See Disturbance regimes Floods, 62, 106-107, 122, 124-125. See also Climate change and geography Food crises, 63, 100, 106, 133-136 Form and Function, 93 Fortune magazine, 131 Fractal dimensions, 76 Fundac para el Desarrollo Agropecuario (FUNDAGRO), 130 Future Geographies. See Geography, future needs for G GAM. See Geographical Analysis Machine (GAM) Geographers, 6, 15 diversity among, 4-5, 139, 154-155, 167, 208 influence of, 109-111, 167-168 numbers of, 4, 12, 138-139 recognition of, 166-167, 170 Geographic and Spatial Systems Program, 126 Geographic brushing, 66-67 Geographic education, 1, 25, 27, 146-150 demand for, 11-12, 27, 148 graduate level, 1-2, 4, 8-9, 151, 154, 189-195 need for improved, 5, 8, 147-160, 163-164 techniques of, 52, 58, 152-153, 155-160 undergraduate level, 149-156, 164, 192-195 Geographic information analysis (GIA) tools, 62 Geographic information system listserve (GIS-L), 160 Geographic information systems (GISs), 3, 43-44, 47-48, 52, 58-63, 111, 126, 133, 145-146 need for experts in, 188, 202-204, 210, 213, 216 Geographic literacy, 1, 6-8, 13, 165, 169 Geographic variability, 30 Geographic visualization (GVis), 3, 63-65 Geographical Analysis Machine (GAM), 62-63 Geographical Systems, 89 Geographical understanding, improving, 147-150, 161-168 Geography, 3-4, 15 employment trends in, 187-217 epistemologies of, 13, 44-46 future needs for, 5, 106-107, 137 perspective of, 28-46 professional organizations, 218-219 relevance of, 16, 46, 75-86, 92-103 research activity in, 2, 9, 48-49 research challenges facing, 140-147, 162-163, 165-166, 168-169 strengthening foundations of, 138-160

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--> subject matter of, 2-3, 15, 71-75, 86-92 techniques of, 3-4, 47-69, 146 Geography Alliance, 195-196, 210-213 Geography Education National Implementation Project, 12 Geography Education Standards Project, 27, 148 Geography National Standards. See National Geography Standards Geomorphology, 34, 36, 92 GeoSim, 157 GIA. See Geographic information analysis (GIA) tools GIS-L. See Geographic information system listserve (GIS-L) GISs. See Geographic information systems (GISs) Global change, 4, 17, 99, 129-132 broadening concept of, 141-142 climatic (See Climate change and geography) Global Demography Project, 43 Global positioning systems (GPSs), 52-54, 160 need for experts in, 216 Global warming. See Greenhouse effect Goals 2000: The Educate America Act, 1, 8, 11, 14, 27, 146 GPSs. See Global positioning systems (GPSs) Great Flood of 1993, 122, 124-125 Greenhouse effect, 24, 33, 127-128 Guide to Programs of Geography in the United States and Canada, 192 , 200 GVis. See Geographic visualization H Hazard management, 4, 19, 60-61, 120-122 Health care and geography, 21-24, 69, 134-135. See also Low-birth-weight babies; Spatial diffusion and epidemics Heat waves. See Climate change and geography High School Geography Project, 189 Hispanic Opportunity District, 118-119 HIV. See Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) Homelessness, 112-113 Horizontal connections, 3, 30 Human Dimensions of Global Environmental Change Programme, 72 Human geography, 62 Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), 24, 96 Human migration. See Migration, studies of Human-societal dynamics, 36-39 Hunger. See Food crises Hurricanes. See Climate change and geography Hypermedia applications, 41, 65 I ICSU. See International Council for Scientific Unions (ICSU) IGBP. See International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme (IGBP) IGU. See International Geographical Union (IGU) IHDP. See International Human Dimensions of Global Environmental Change Programme (IHDP) Illiteracy, geographic. See Geographic literacy Immigration. See Migration, studies of Institute of British Geographers. See Royal Geographical Society Integration in place. See Place, integration in Integrative research, need for, 162-163 Interactive learning strategies, 5-6, 155-156 Inter-America Foundation, 130 Interdependencies. See Place, interdependencies between; Scales, interdependencies among Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), 72, 128 International Cartographic Association, 133 International Conference on Nutrition, 134-135

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--> International Council for Scientific Unions (ICSU), 62, 127 International Geographical Union (IGU), 62, 219 International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme (IGBP), 25, 54, 72, 128 International Human Dimensions of Global Environmental Change Programme (IHDP), 128 International Standards Organization Technical Committee on Geographic Information/Geomatics (ISO/TC 211), 133 International trade, 8, 10 Internet connections, 43, 160 IPCC. See Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) ISO/TC 211. See International Standards Organization Technical Committee on Geographic Information/Geomatics (ISO/TC 211) J Jobs in Geography, 188 K Kondratiev wave phenomena, 94 L Law of the River, 115 Local-global continuum, 14n, 142-144 Location Science, 89 Location theory, 36, 38 Locational coding, 61 Location-allocation models, 116, 133, 146 Longitudinal studies, need for, 145 Long-wave rhythms. See Kondratiev wave phenomena Low-birth-weight babies, 22-23 M Macroscale phenomena and processes, 4, 14n, 31, 51, 97, 142-143 Malnutrition. See Food crises Maps. See Spatial representation Marketing. See Retail marketing Maternal health services. See Low-birth-weight babies Mathematical geography, 141. See also Spatial representations, mathematical Mesoscale phenomena and processes, 14n, 49, 97 Meta-data, 51 Metaphors for map animation, 104 Microscale phenomena and processes, 4, 14n, 49, 97, 142-143 Migration, studies of, 38-39, 89-92, 132 transnational, 94 Milankovitch orbital/radiative forcing, 123 Military spending, 17-18 Missouri and Mississippi River systems. See Great Flood of 1993 Mitigation strategies, 33-34 Monte Carlo simulation, 55, 68 Multidimensional visualization, dynamic, 94 Multimedia tools, 57, 64-65 Multinational institutions, 120 Multivariate statistical analysis. See Spatial statistics N Nation states, role of, 102-103 National Academy of Sciences, 12 National Center for Atmospheric Research, 56 National Center for Education Statistics (NCES), 189, 194, 201 National Center for Geographic Information and Analysis (NCGIA), 105, 126, 162 National Center for Health Statistics, 126 National Council for Geographic Education, 12, 169, 218 National Digital Cartographic Database, 126 National Geographic Society (NGS), 6, 12, 27, 169-171, 219 National Geographic Society Alliance Network, 147n National Geography Bee, 148

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--> National Geography Standards, 197, 199, 212, 216 National Information Infrastructure, 104. See also National spatial data infrastructure (NSDI) National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, 54 National Research Council (NRC), 2, 6, 9-10, 54, 101, 128, 170-171 National Science Foundation (NSF), 6, 13, 105, 131, 148, 169-171, 191 National spatial data infrastructure (NSDI), 125-127 Native Americans, decline of. See Pre-Hispanic populations of Americas Natural resources, monitoring, 61 Nature. See Society and nature, interactions between NCES. See National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) NCGIA. See National Center for Geographic Information and Analysis (NCGIA) NGS. See National Geographic Society (NGS) Nonlinear systems. See Complexity NRC. See National Research Council (NRC) NSDI. See National spatial data infrastructure (NSDI) NSF. See National Science Foundation (NSF) Nuclear power plant accidents, 121-123 O Object-oriented programming (OOP) concepts, 63 Observation, technique of, 3, 49-57 OOP approach. See Object-oriented programming (OOP) concepts P Parallel processing methods, 68 Perspective of geography. See Geography Physical geography, 34-35 Pike and Thelin map of United States, 42 Place, 2-3, 9, 28, 30 distinctiveness of, 73-75 integration in, 30, 71-86 interdependencies between, 30-31, 86-95 Place names, 2-3, 16 Planning. See Policy making Plutonium transfer and storage, 19-20 Policy making, 61-63, 65, 109. See also Decision making, geography's contributions to legal defenses, 117 Political changes, 10, 129-132 Political conflict and geography, 75, 86, 94-95 Political cultures, local, 74 Political institutions, studies of, 39 Pollution. See Environmental change, degradation Population-resource dynamics, 71 Pre-Hispanic populations of Americas, 72 President's National Science and Technology Council, 13-14 President's Water Resources Policy Commission, 125 Price fluctuations, 93 Professional Geographer, 187-217 Public health. See Low-birth-weight babies Public policy. See Policy making Q Quality of data. See Reliability of data R Range of choice, 34 Raster data structures, 44 Rediscovering Geography Committee, 2, 5, 9-10, 138 biographical sketches, 220-225 objectives of assessment, 10 recommendations, 6, 168-171 Regional specialization, 98, 156-159 Regionalization problem, 31 Relationships. See Synthesis, domains of Reliability of data, 105

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--> Remote sensing, 3, 52-54. See also Geographic information systems (GISs) Representation. See Spatial representation Retail marketing, 114-116 Rio Grande River system, 19-20 Risk assessment. See Hazard management; Nuclear power plant accidents Robotic vehicles, guidance of, 108 Royal Geographical Society, 219 S Sampling, technique of, 54-57 Satellite imagery, 54 Scales, 2, 9, 28, 30, 54, 68 interdependencies among, 5, 31, 95-108, 142-145 nested hierarchies of, 100-101 Scatterplot brush, 66-67 Science of complexity. See Complexity Scientific Assessment and Strategy Team (SAST), 124 Scientific Committee on Problems of the Environment (SCOPE), 128 Scientific understanding, geography's contributions to, 70-108 Silicon Valley, 74 Social Science Research Council (SSRC), 157-158, 170 Social theory, 9-10, 13, 36-37 synthesis in place, 37-38 Society and nature, interactions between, 5 Soviet bloc, splintering of. See Cold War, demise of Space, 2, 28 annihilation by time, 131 Space-time-attribute analysis machine (STAM), 63 Spatial Data Transfer Standards, 104, 125 Spatial decision making, 6, 43, 93 Spatial demographics. See Migration, studies of Spatial diffusion and epidemics, 49-50, 95-96 Spatial dynamics, 34n, 93 Spatial interactions, 4, 87-89 modeling of, 89 Spatial representations, 29, 31, 39-44, 103-108. See also Temporal representations, need for animated (See dynamic) cognitive, 43, 108 digital, 3-4, 43-44 dynamic, 57-59, 64, 104, 156 interactive, 57 mathematical, 41, 43 research into, 104-105, 108 spatiotemporal, 103 verbal, 41 visual, 40-41 Spatial statistics, 3, 65-69 SSRC. See Social Science Research Council (SSRC) STAM. See Space-time-attribute analysis machine (STAM) States, role of. See Nation states, role of Statistical analysis. See Spatial statistics Sustainable development, 106 Synthesis, domains of, 29, 32-39 T Technological hazards. See Hazard management Temporal brush, 66-67 Temporal representations, need for, 145 Territoriality, 73, 95 Three Mile Island (TMI) accident, 121-122 Topologically Integrated Geographical Encoding and Referencing system (TIGER), 43, 61, 126 Trade, 87-88, 132 falling barriers to, 129 "Truth" of representations, 65 U UCGIS. See University Consortium for Geographic Information Science (UCGIS) Understanding geography. See Geographical understanding, improving

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--> University Consortium for Geographic Information Science (UCGIS), 44 Urban climatology, 80 Urban policy, 111-113 Urban poverty, 102 U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID), 63, 129 U.S. Bureau of Reclamation, 115 U.S. Bureau of the Census, 43, 61, 126 U.S. Commission on Civil Rights, 117 U.S. Department of Education, 148 U.S. Department of Energy, 117, 126 U.S. Department of State, 158 U.S. Department of Transportation, 126 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), 92, 126 U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), 42-43, 54, 58, 108, 124-126, 191 V Vance-Owen plan. See Bosnia, partition of Vertical integration, 3, 30 Visualization, 141. See also Geographic visualization (GVis); Multidimensional visualization, dynamic W Warsaw Pact, splintering of. See Cold War, demise of Water-budget algorithms, 131. See also Evapotranspiration Watershed dynamics, 89-92. See also Floods managing, 101, 112, 114 Water Resources, 112 White House Interagency Floodplain Management Task Force, 122 World Bank Conference on Overcoming Global Hunger, 135 World Wide Web, 43, 160 Y Yucca Mountain nuclear waste repository, 123