1. Experience with sustained R&D indicates that DOE's goal of $25/bbl (1991 dollars) for coal-based liquids may be attainable with continued research and systems studies.
  2. Industrial programs have been drastically reduced.
  3. The DOE budget for FY 1995 proposes a drastic reduction in liquefaction activities.
Coal Refineries and Coproduct Systems
  1. The concept of coal refineries or coproduct systems, defined as the production of more than one commercial product from coal, offers opportunities for optimization and significant cost reduction of coal conversion systems relative to single-product plants.
  2. Coproduction with electricity has the potential to reduce indirect coal liquefaction costs by $6/bbl or more, indicating that pioneer production of liquids may become economically attractive in the timeframe projected for widespread construction of advanced gasification power generation facilities.
  3. Opportunities for coproducts could determine the choice of gasification technology. Systems studies are needed to identify the major research, development, and commercialization opportunities.
  4. The first major opportunities for implementation of coal refineries will likely involve electric power as the major product. Indirect liquefaction could well be the first application of coproduction with electricity.
  5. The large reduction in FY 1995 funding for DOE coal R&D programs relating to coproduct systems is caused by discontinuation of the mild gasification activity. DOE has proposed $0.6 million for conceptual studies of coproduction of liquids and electricity.


CRS Sirrine Engineers, Inc. 1994. Gasification Product Improvement Facility Status. Paper presented at the Contractors Conference, U.S. Department of Energy, Morgantown Energy Technology Center, Morgantown, West Virginia, June.

COGARN. 1987. Coal Gasification: Direct Applications and Syntheses of Chemicals and Fuels. U.S. Department of Energy Coal Gasification Research Needs (COGARN) Working Group, DOE/ ER-0326. Washington, D.C.: DOE.

DOE. 1991. Report to Congress: Coal Refineries, A Definition and Example Concepts. U.S Department of Energy, Office of Fossil Energy, DOE/FE-0240P. Washington, D.C.: DOE.

DOE. 1993a. Clean Coal Technologies: Research, Development, and Demonstration Program Plan. U.S. Department of Energy, DOE/FE-0284. Washington, D.C.: DOE.

DOE. 1993b. Direct Coal Liquefaction Baseline Design and System Analysis: Final Report on Baseline and Improved Baseline, Executive Summary. Prepared for U.S. Department of Energy, Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, under contract no. DEAC22 90PC89857. Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania: DOE.

DOE. 1994a. FY 1995 Congressional Budget Request. U.S. Department of Energy, DOE/CR-0023, Vol. 4. Washington, D.C.: DOE.

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