DOE. 1994b. Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program: Program Update 1993. U.S. Department of Energy, DOE/FE-099P. Washington, D.C.: DOE.

EIA. 1994. Annual Energy Outlook 1994. Energy Information Administration, U.S. Department of Energy, DOE/EIA-0383(94). Washington, D.C.: DOE.

EPRI. 1984. Coproduction of Methanol and Electricity. AP-3749. Palo Alto, California: Electric Power Research Institute.


Gilbert/Commonwealth, Inc. 1994. Optimization of Gas Stream Cleanup in Three IGCC Systems. Prepared for U.S. Department of Energy under contract DE-AC01-88FE61660. Reading, Pennsylvania: Gilbert/Commonwealth, Inc.

Gray, D. 1994. Coal Refineries: An Update. Prepared for Sandia National Laboratories by the Mitre Corporation under contract no. AF-7166. McLean, Virginia: The Mitre Corporation.


Kastens, M.L., L.I. Hirst, and C.C. Chaffee. 1949. Liquid fuels from coal. Industrial and Engineering Chemistry 41: 870-885.

Khan, M.R., and T.M. Kurata. 1985. The Feasibility of Mild Gasification of Coal: Research Needs. U.S. Department of Energy, Morgantown Energy Technology Center, Technical Note DOE/ METC-85/4019. Washington, D.C.: DOE.


Lumpkin, R.E. 1988. Recent progress in the direct liquefaction of coal. Science 239: 873-877.


NRC. 1990. Fuels to Drive Our Future. Energy Engineering Board, National Research Council. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press.

NRC. 1993. Advanced Exploratory Research Directions for Extraction and Processing of Oil and Gas. Board on Chemical Sciences and Technology, National Research Council. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press.


Oil and Gas Journal. 1994. Alternate fuels: China's. Oil and Gas Journal 92: 35.


Probstein, R.F., and R.E. Hicks. 1982. Synthetic Fuels. New York: McGraw-Hill.


Schindler, H.D. 1989. Coal Liquefaction: A Research and Development Needs Assessment. Prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Analysis, DOE/ER-0400. Washington, D.C.: DOE.

Solomon, P.R., T.H. Fletcher, and R.J. Pubmire. 1993. Progress in coal pyrolysis. Fuel 72(5):587-597.

Stiegel, G. 1994. Indirect Liquefaction. Paper presented to the Committee on Strategic Assessment of DOE's Coal Program, National Academy of Sciences, Washington, D.C., Jan. 14.


Tam, S.M. 1993. Indirect Coal Liquefaction via Fischer-Tropsch Technology for the Baseload IGCC Plant. Paper presented at the IEA Second International Conference on the Clean and Efficient Use of Coal and Lignite: Its Role in Energy, Environment and Life, Hong Kong, Nov. 30-Dec. 3.

Tam, S.S., D.C. Pollack, and J.M. Fox. 1993. The combination of once-through Fischer-Tropsch with baseload IGCC technology. P. 306 in Alternate Energy '93 held April 28-30, 1993 in Colorado Springs, Colorado. Arlington, Virginia: Council on Alternate Fuels.



The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement