systems to achieve target efficiencies and reduce the cost of the commercialized technology (DOE, 1993a). To achieve these opportunities, substantial development and demonstration of integrated systems still remains.


Pulverized coal combustion systems are an established and mature technology for power generation, with comparatively limited opportunity for further performance enhancements based on a simple Rankine steam cycle relative to advanced combined-cycle systems. Thus, the market niche for the LEBS system is not clear. Environmental performance is comparable to state-of-the-art commercial systems available today, and the efficiency of the LEBS system is comparable to today's supercritical steam units. Potentially lower costs through system integration, however, could be of interest for near-term power generation markets.

The indirectly fired combined-cycle systems have the potential for significantly higher efficiency. However, this higher efficiency depends on providing gas heated to 1260 °C to 1425 °C (2300 °F to 2600 °F), while heat exchanger materials are currently limited to 1100 °C (2000 °F). Increasing this temperature is a major materials challenge. The fallback strategy of depending on natural gas for increasing the gas temperature could provide an interim system.



Fluidized-bed combustion (FBC) technology consists of forming a bed of finely sized ash, limestone (for sulfur removal), and coal particles in a furnace and forcing combustion air up through the mixture, causing it to become suspended or fluidized. The height of bed material suspended above the bottom of the furnace is a function of the velocity of the combustion air entering below the bed. Atmospheric "bubbling-bed" FBC technology has a fixed height of bed material and operates at or near atmospheric pressure in the furnace. In atmospheric circulating FBC technology, the combustion air enters below the bed at a velocity high enough to carry the bed material out of the top of the furnace, where it is caught in a high-temperature cyclone and recycled back into the furnace. This recycling activity improves combustion and reagent utilization. In all AFBC (atmospheric fluidized-bed combustion) designs, coal and limestone are continually fed into the furnace and spent bed material, consisting of ash, calcium sulfate, and unreacted or calcined limestone, is withdrawn at the rate required to maintain the proper amount of bed material for fluidization.

The amount of coal fed into the bed is approximately 2 to 3 percent of the total weight of the bed material. The fluidization of the bed and the relatively

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