TABLE 7-2 DOE's Program Goals for Pressurized Fluidized-Bed Combustion Systems

 

Pressurized Fluidized-Bed Combustion

Technology Goals

First-Generation

Second-Generation

Improved Second-Generation

Net efficiency, percent

40

45

≥50

Emissions,

SO2

1/4

1/5

1/10

fraction of

NOx

1/3

1/5

1/10

NSPS

Particulates

Not specified

Not specified

Not specified

Air toxics emissions relative to 1990 Clean Air Act amendments

Meet

Meet

Meet

Solid wastes

Not specified

Not specified

Not specified

Capital cost, $/kW

1,300

1,100

1,000

Electricity cost compared to current pulverized coal

10 Percent lower

20 Percent lower

25 Percent lower

Commercial completion milestones

Commercial-scale demonstration—mid-1990s

Commercial scale demonstrations—2000

Commercial-scale demonstration—2007

Development status

70- to 80-MW demonstration projects ongoing

Systems development, integration, and testing ongoing

Development initiated

 

Source: DOE (1993a).

Technical Issues, Risks, and Opportunities

AFBC systems, either in the bubbling bed or circulating bed configuration, constitute a commercially mature technology, and DOE has contributed in a major way to its success. To further enhance its commercial application, manufacturers need to refine the technology to achieve lower capital costs compared with modern pulverized coal (PC) plants, improved environmental performance, and improved operating efficiency. However, the time period for competitive application of this technology in the U.S. electric power production sector is now and in the immediate future. The availability and cost of natural gas, along with competition from modern PC plants, will dictate whether AFBC continues to be a technology of choice for environmental compliance and new capacity additions by independent power producers. Because most new coal plants currently are being constructed outside the United States, the greatest opportunity for this technology is in developing countries.

PFBC technology is just beginning to be commercially demonstrated and



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