State of the Art

Components of IGCC technology have been under development for some time, and several competing coal gasification processes now have successful commercial-scale operating records (see Chapter 6). These include the Texaco, Shell, and Destec (formerly Dow) entrained-flow processes and the Lurgi moving bed process. Other gasification processes have been successfully tested at pilot scale and are ready for scale-up to commercial size, including the Prenflo entrained-flow, the British Gas/Lurgi moving bed, and the KRW and the high-temperature Winkler fluidized-bed processes.

The IGCC concept was first successfully demonstrated at the 100-MW scale at Southern California Edison's Cool Water Station in Daggett from 1984 to 1989

TABLE 7-3 IGCC Power Plant Performance and Economics Based on Shell Gasification Technology and Eastern Bituminous Coal (all costs in constant 1992 dollars)

Plant Parameter

Value

Nominal size, MW

500

Thermal efficiency (HHV basis)

 

% Fuel to power

42

Net heat rate, Btu/kWh

8,900

Total capital cost, $/kW

1,613

Levelized cost of electricity,a mills/kWh

41

a Assuming a capacity factor of 80 percent and a levelized coal price of $1.30/106 Btu.

Source: EPRI (1993a).

using the Texaco entrained-flow coal gasification process. Destec is currently operating a 160-MW IGCC plant in Plaquemine, Louisiana, using a two-stage, entrained-flow coal gasification process. In the Netherlands, SEP (the joint authority for electricity production) has begun operation of a 250-MW IGCC plant based on the Shell entrained-flow coal gasification process. Each of these plants employs gas turbines with firing temperatures of about 1100 °C (2000 °F).

Table 7-3 summarizes the performance and economics for a hypothetical 500-MW first-generation IGCC plant employing a state-of-the-art, oxygen-blown, entrained-flow gasification process to provide fuel gas to advanced combustion turbines. The IGCC plant is fueled with an eastern bituminous coal, is highly integrated, and employs cold gas cleanup. The cost for current systems is significantly higher than the DOE goals for advanced systems shown later in Table 7-4.



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