to ensure that solid waste from advanced fossil energy technologies is not a roadblock to commercialization of those technologies. More specifically, the objectives are to achieve a 50 percent utilization of solid waste from advanced fossil energy technologies and commercial markets by 2010, to establish use for mine remediation of alkaline by-products such as are produced by fluidized-bed combustors and gasifiers with limestone added for sulfur removal, and to provide commercial acceptance of products manufactured from advanced pulverized coal by-products (DOE, 1993a). Many examples of successful waste product recycling, such as the use of flyash, exist. The best uses for the future are generally considered to be in construction, agriculture, mine reclamation, and soil stabilization. The present cost of these options and the enormous quantities of waste relative to by-product demand are the principal roadblocks to increased commercialization.
The final component of the Control Technologies Program is Advanced Research. The emphasis in this part of the program is on fundamental hot gas cleanup methods such as ceramic filter and membrane research.
Current commercial technologies for SO2, NOx, and particulate control for pulverized coal plants have improved substantially over the past decade and now can meet or exceed DOE's air pollutant emission targets for 2000 and 2005. Cost reduction is the primary need and the main potential benefit of current CCT demonstration projects.
The most difficult near-term R&D challenges are in development of the hot gas particulate and sulfur cleanup systems to be employed with advanced power generation systems (IGCC, PFBC, IGFC). In particular, the technical problems of achieving reliable and sustained operation have yet to be overcome. Solutions to these problems are central to the achievement of cost-effective, high-efficiency power generation systems. Especially critical is the need for a high-temperature, high-pressure particulate removal system for advanced PFBC.
Other DOE programs are beginning or continuing to address the emerging issues of hazardous air pollutants (air toxics), greenhouse gas emissions (especially CO2), and solid waste minimization. All of these are important issues that will require increased R&D attention in the future.
Angrist, S.W. 1976. Direct Energy Conversion, 3rd Ed. Reading, Massachusetts: Addison-Wesley.
Bannister, R.L., F.P. Bevc, W.F. Domeracki, and T.E. Lippert. 1993. Advanced coal-fired combined-cycle power plant technology alternatives. Presented before the Coal-Fired Power Plant Upgrade Conference, Warsaw, Poland, June 15-17. Orlando, Florida: Westinghouse Electric Corporation, Power Generation Business Unit.