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program organization responds to a directive from Congress stating that, for ease of budget presentation and receiving testimony, advanced research directly related to a specific coal area should be presented both in the budget and in testimony as part of the total program for that specific technology area, rather than as part of the AR&TD budget category.
The AR&TD program includes both research and nonresearch portions. The Technology Crosscut activities within AR&TD (see Chapter 2) include all nonresearch areas, namely, Environmental Activities, Technical and Economic Analyses, International Program Support, and Coal Technology Export, as well as two advanced research areas, specifically, Instrumentation and Diagnosis and Bioprocessing of Coal. For the purposes of the present discussion, the nonresearch portion of the AR&TD program will not be considered, and corresponding budget data are not included in Tables 9-1 and 9-2.
Table 9-1 presents the funding history of advanced research programs on coal since 1988. The FY 1995 budget request represents the DOE and administration proposal to Congress. When these budget numbers are expressed in constant dollars, it can be seen that there was a decrease of approximately 30 percent in the advanced research budget between FY 1988 and FY 1994, with an additional decrease of approximately 25 percent from the FY 1994 level proposed for FY 1995.
A more detailed comparison between the FY 1994 enacted appropriation and the 1995 congressional request is shown in Table 9-2, which also shows in more detail the advanced research activities funded under AR&TD and AR&ET. Major budget reductions are proposed in FY 1995 for the programs in materials (25 percent), components (50 percent), and, most notably, coal liquefaction (85 percent). It is proposed that the FY 1994 budget of $5.2 million for coal liquefaction be reduced to $0.8 million in FY 1995.
TABLE 9-1 Trends in Advanced Research Budgets (millions of current dollars)