APPENDIX A
Project Description Strategic Assessment of DOE's Coal Program

For Public Release

August 18, 1993

NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES-NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL

COMMISSION ON ENGINEERING AND TECHNICAL SYSTEMS

ENERGY ENGINEERING BOARD

STRATEGIC ASSESSMENT OF THE

DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY'S COAL PROGRAM

INTRODUCTION:

The Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPACT) gives certain responsibilities to the Secretary of Energy pertaining to DOE's coal program. EPACT further requires the Secretary to submit reports to the Congress on the program, including a plan for Research, Development, Demonstration, and Commercial Application (RDD&C) to meet the objectives defined in Title XIII, Section 1301. Other sections in Subtitle A identify specific technologies or areas that the U.S. Department of Energy should address under this RDD&C program. In addition to Subtitle A, Subtitles B and C in Title XIII and Subtitle A in Title XX, also identify other coal-related activities in the areas outlined below for implementation by the DOE.



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--> APPENDIX A Project Description Strategic Assessment of DOE's Coal Program For Public Release August 18, 1993 NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES-NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL COMMISSION ON ENGINEERING AND TECHNICAL SYSTEMS ENERGY ENGINEERING BOARD STRATEGIC ASSESSMENT OF THE DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY'S COAL PROGRAM INTRODUCTION: The Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPACT) gives certain responsibilities to the Secretary of Energy pertaining to DOE's coal program. EPACT further requires the Secretary to submit reports to the Congress on the program, including a plan for Research, Development, Demonstration, and Commercial Application (RDD&C) to meet the objectives defined in Title XIII, Section 1301. Other sections in Subtitle A identify specific technologies or areas that the U.S. Department of Energy should address under this RDD&C program. In addition to Subtitle A, Subtitles B and C in Title XIII and Subtitle A in Title XX, also identify other coal-related activities in the areas outlined below for implementation by the DOE.

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--> TITLE XIII COAL Subtitle A: Research, Development, Demonstration, and Commercial Application: Section 1301: RDD&C Program on Coal Conversion and Utilization Technologies; Section 1302: Coal-fired Diesel Engines; Section 1303: Clean Coal, Waste-to Energy; Section 1304: Nonfuel Use of Coal; Section 1305: Coal Refinery Program; Section 1306: Coalbed Methane Recovery; Section 1307: Metallurgical Coal Development; Section 1308: Utilization of Coal Wastes; Section 1309: Underground Coal Gasification; Section 1310: Low Rank Coal Research and Development; Section 1311: Magnetohydrodynamics; Section 1312: Oil Substitution Through Coal Liquefaction. Subtitle B (Clean Coal Technology Program): Section 1321: Additional Clean Coal Technology Solicitations Subtitle C: Other Coal Provisions: Section 1332: Innovative Clean Coal Technology Transfer Program; Section 1336: Coal Fuel Mixtures; Section 1337: National Clearinghouse. TITLE XX GENERAL PROVISIONS; REDUCTION OF OIL VULNERABILITY Subtitle A: Oil and Gas Supply Enhancement: Section 2013: Natural Gas Supply Subsections dealing with surface gasification of coal, and cofiring of natural gas and coal. Section 1301 requires that the Secretary of Energy submit a report to the Congress to achieve the objectives defined in this section, including "ensuring reliable electricity supply, complying with applicable environmental requirements, achieving cost-competitive production and demonstration of liquid and gaseous fuels from coal, and ensuring the timely commercial application of cost-effective coal technologies." In particular, subparagraphs c(l) to c(5) of Section 1301 call for this report to include the following information: Subparagraph c(l): A detailed description of ongoing RDD&C activities regarding coal-based technologies undertaken by DOE, other Federal or

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--> State government departments or agencies and, to the extent such information is publicly available, other public or private organizations in the United States and other countries. Subparagraph c(2): A listing and analysis of current Federal and State government regulatory and financial incentives that could further the goals of the programs established under Subtitle A. Subparagraph c(3): Recommendations regarding the manner in which any ongoing coal-based demonstration and commercial application program might be modified and extended to ensure the timely demonstrations of advanced coal-based technologies. Subparagraph c(4): Recommendations, if any, regarding the manner in which the cost sharing demonstrations conducted pursuant to the Clean Coal Program established by Public Law 98-473 might be modified and extended in order to ensure the timely demonstration of advanced coal-based technologies. Subparagraph c(5): A detailed plan for conducting the research, development, demonstration, and commercial application programs to achieve the goals and objectives defined in Section 1301. The DOE has been conducting coal RD&D programs for many years. These programs have addressed, or are addressing, some of the areas identified in EPACT. The Office of Fossil Energy's coal programs are described in the document entitled "Coal Strategic Plan" and in the Administration's budget request for fiscal year (FY) 1994. Beginning in FY 1994, the Office of Fossil Energy will begin to update its "Coal Strategic Plan," and formulate the RDD&C plan required by Section 1301. As part of this process, the Office of Fossil Energy is seeking the advice and recommendations of the National Research Council regarding strategy and priorities in its coal program. PROPOSED ACTIVITY: The Energy Engineering Board (EEB) will establish a committee to review DOE's current coal program, and selected sections of EPACT relating to coal, and develop recommendations to update the "Coal Strategic Plan." The committee will include about 10 members from disciplines pertinent to the proposed effort. Expertise will be sought in areas such as coal science, conversion of coal to gaseous and liquid fuels, especially coal gasification, coal-based electricity generation, chemical engineering, energy engineering, environmental control technologies, energy economics, and strategic planning for R&D. The committee will provide independent scientific and technical advice consistent with the strategic assessment requested by the DOE targeted at the planning cycle beginning with FY 1996. In the process of nominating the committee and during the course

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--> of the study, as appropriate, the EEB will consult with other NRC units including the Board on Earth Sciences and Resources and the Board on Chemical Sciences and Technology. The committee will be subject to the usual NRC bias and conflict of interest procedures. The committee will: Review the DOE coal program including the current version of the "Coal Strategic Plan" and additional details contained in the Administration's budget requests for FY 1994 and 1995, as appropriate. Review the sections identified above in EPACT, especially Section 1301, and the status of the DOE coal program vis-à-vis the provisions in the EPACT and coal related R&D in organizations outside DOE. Recommend objectives (including performance and schedule) that ought to be emphasized for those areas in EPACT that are not in the current DOE coal program. Make recommendations pertaining to Section 1301 (c), especially subparagraphs c(3), c(4), and c(5): As part of this task, DOE's Office of Fossil Energy will provide the committee early in the study with the Office's own, strategically focused descriptions of its ongoing research, development, demonstration, and commercial application activities, and the listing and analysis of current government regulatory and financial incentives described in subparagraphs c(l) and c(2), respectively. The Office will also provide for the committee's consideration its evaluations of requirements in several areas related to EPACT provisions (e.g., nonfuel uses of coal, coal refining). Identify priorities for DOE's future coal program areas based on the foregoing reviews and recommendations and the assumption that the outyear budgets (to be appropriated) for the DOE coal program remain at the FY 1994 level (in real terms). Prepare a report that would include, in broad strategic terms, the emphasis and priorities that DOE ought to consider in updating its "Coal Strategic Plan" and responding to the EPACT. The committee will have an initial orientation and planning meeting to set the terms of reference for the study. The Office of Fossil Energy will brief the committee on its expectations of the study, on its Coal Strategic Plan, coal-related provision in EPACT, the current DOE coal program, and preliminary strategies and plans for new initiatives. The committee will invite a number of outside experts to brief it at its second meeting. The objective of this meeting will be to solicit information and opinion from a variety of sources in industry, universities, national laboratories and, as

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--> appropriate, other public and private sector organizations that have an interest in the DOE coal program. The meeting will be directed at a critical assessment of the current DOE coal program and areas in EPACT identified above for which the DOE is seeking programmatic objectives and priorities. The committee will hold additional deliberative meetings to formulate its conclusions and recommendations and prepare its report. It is anticipated that the study will begin about August 1, 1993, and the committee's report would be available by July 31, 1994. ANTICIPATED RESULTS: The study will result in a final report to the Department of Energy responsive to the charge outlined in this proposal. The committee's report will be subject to NRC review procedures and be made available to the public without restrictions. The report will be prepared in sufficient quantity to ensure adequate distribution.

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--> APPENDIX B The Energy Policy Act of 1992 TITLE XIII—COAL Subtitle A—Research, Development, Demonstration, and Commercial Application SEC. 1301. COAL RESEARCH, DEVELOPMENT, DEMONSTRATION, AND COMMERCIAL APPLICATION PROGRAMS. (a) ESTABLISHMENT.—The Secretary shall, in accordance with section 3001 and 3002 of this Act, conduct programs for research, development, demonstration, and commercial application on coal-based technologies. Such research, development, demonstration, and commercial application programs shall include the programs established under this subtitle, and shall have the goals and objectives of— (1) ensuring a reliable electricity supply; (2) complying with applicable environmental requirements; (3) achieving the control of sulfur oxides, oxides of nitrogen, air toxics, solid and liquid wastes, greenhouse gases, or other emissions resulting from coal use or conversion at levels of proficiency greater than or equal to applicable currently available commercial technology; (4) achieving the cost competitive conversion of coal into energy forms usable in the transportation sector; (5) demonstrating the conversion of coal to synthetic gaseous, liquid, and solid fuels; (6) demonstrating, in cooperation with other Federal and State agencies, the use of coal-derived fuels in mobile equipment, with opportunities for industrial cost sharing participation;

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--> (7) ensuring the timely commercial application of cost-effective technologies or energy production processes or systems utilizing coal which achieve— (A) greater efficiency in the conversion of coal to useful energy when compared to currently available commercial technology for the use of coal; and (B) the control of emissions from the utilization of coal; and (8) ensuring the availability for commercial use of such technologies by the year 2010. (b) DEMONSTRATION AND COMMERCIAL APPLICATION PROGRAMS.—(1) In selecting either a demonstration project or a commercial application project for financial assistance under this subtitle, the Secretary shall seek to ensure that, relative to otherwise comparable commercially available technologies or products, the selected project will meet one or more of the following criteria: (A) It will reduce environmental emissions to an extent greater than required by applicable provisions of law. (B) It will increase the overall efficiency of the utilization of coal, including energy conversion efficiency and, where applicable, production of products derived from coal. (C) It will be a more cost-effective technological alternative, based on life cycle capital and operating costs per unit of energy produced and, where applicable, costs per unit of product produced. Priority in selection shall be given to those projects which, in the judgment of the Secretary, best meet one or more of these criteria. (2) In administering demonstration and commercial application programs authorized by this subtitle, the Secretary shall establish accounting and project management controls that will be adequate to control costs. (3)(A) Not later than 180 days after the date of enactment of this Act, the Secretary shall establish procedures and criteria for the recoupment of the Federal share of each cost shared demonstration and commercial application project authorized pursuant to this subtitle. Such recoupment shall occur within a reasonable period of time following the date of completion of such project, but not later than 20 years following such date, taking into account the effect of recoupment on— (i) the commercial competitiveness of the entity carrying out the project; (ii) the profitability of the project; and (iii) the commercial viability of the coal-based technology utilized. (B) The Secretary may at any time waive or defer all or some portion of the recoupment requirement as necessary for the commercial viability of the project. (4) Projects selected by the Secretary under this subtitle for demonstration or commercial application of a technology shall, in the judgment of the Secretary, be capable of enhancing the state of the art for such technology. (c) REPORT.—Within 240 days after the date of enactment of this Act, the Secretary shall transmit to the Committee on Energy and Commerce and the Committee on Science, Space, and Technolo-

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--> gy of the House of Representatives and to the Committee on Energy and Natural Resources of the Senate a report which shall include each of the following: (1) A detailed description of ongoing research, development, demonstration, and commercial application activities regarding coal-based technologies undertaken by the Department of Energy, other Federal or State government departments or agencies and, to the extent such information is publicly available, other public or private organizations in the United States and other countries. (2) A listing and analysis of current Federal and State government regulatory and financial incentives that could further the goals of the programs established under this subtitle. (3) Recommendations regarding the manner in which any ongoing coal-based demonstration and commercial application program might be modified and extended in order to ensure the timely demonstrations of advanced coal-based technologies so as to ensure that the goals established under this section are achieved and that such demonstrated technologies are available for commercial use by the year 2010. (4) Recommendations, if any, regarding the manner in which the cost sharing demonstrations conducted pursuant to the Clean Coal Program established by Public Law 98-473 might be modified and extended in order to ensure the timely demonstration of advanced coal-based technologies. (5) A detailed plan for conducting the research, development, demonstration, and commercial application programs to achieve the goals and objectives of subsection (a) of this section, which plan shall include a description of— (A) the program elements and management structure to be utilized; (B) the technical milestones to be achieved with respect to each of the advanced coal-based technologies included in the plan; and (C) the dates at which further deadlines for additional cost sharing demonstrations shall be established. (d) STATUS REPORTS.—Within one year after transmittal of the report described in subsection (c), and every 2 years thereafter for a period of 6 years, the Secretary shall transmit to the Congress a report that provides a detailed description of the status of development of the advanced coal-based technologies and the research, development, demonstration, and commercial application activities undertaken to carry out the programs required by this subtitle. (e) CONSULTATION.—In carrying out research, development, demonstration, and commercial application activities under this subtitle, the Secretary shall consult with the National Coal Council and other representatives of the public and private sectors as the Secretary considers appropriate. SEC. 1302. COAL-FIRED DIESEL ENGINES. The Secretary shall conduct a program of research, development, demonstration, and commercial application for utilizing coal-derived liquid or gaseous fuels, including ultra-clean coal-water slurries, in diesel engines. The program shall address—

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--> (1) required engine retrofit technology; (2) coal-fuel production technology; (3) emission control requirements; (4) the testing of low-Btu highly reactive fuels; (5) fuel delivery and storage systems requirements; and (6) other infrastructure required to support commercial deployment. SEC. 1303. CLEAN COAL, WASTE-TO-ENERGY. The Secretary shall establish a program of research, development, demonstration, and commercial application with respect to the use of solid waste combined with coal as a fuel source for clean coal combustion technologies. The program shall address (1) the feasibility of cofiring coal and used vehicle tires in fluidized-bed combustion units; (2) the combined gasification of coal and municipal sludge using integrated gasification combined-cycle technology; (3) the creation of fuel pellets combining coal and material reclaimed from solid waste; (4) the feasibility of cofiring, in fluidized-bed combustion units, waste methane from coal mines, including ventilation air, together with coal or coal wastes; and (5) other sources of waste and coal mixtures in other applications that the Secretary considers appropriate. SEC. 1304. NONFUEL USE OF COAL. (a) PROGRAM.—The Secretary shall prepare a plan for and carry out a program of research, development, demonstration, and commercial application with respect to technologies for the nonfuel use of coal, including- (1) production of coke and other carbon products derived from coal; (2) production of coal-derived, carbon-based chemical intermediates that are precursors of value-added chemicals and polymers; (3) production of chemicals from coal-derived synthesis gas; (4) coal treatment processes, including methodologies such as solvent-extraction techniques that produce low ash, low-sulfur , coal-based chemical feedstocks; and (5) waste utilization, including recovery, processing, and marketing of products derived from sulfur, carbon dioxide, nitrogen, and ash from coal. (b) PLAN CONTENTS.—The plan described in subsection (a) shall address and evaluate (1) the known and potential processes for using coal in the creation of products in the chemical, utility, fuel, and carbon-based materials industries; (2) the costs, benefits, and economic feasibility of using coal products in the chemical and materials industries, including value-added chemicals, carbon-based products, coke, and waste derived from coal; (3) the economics of coproduction of products from coal in conjunction with the production of electric power, thermal energy, and fuel;

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--> (4) the economics of the refining of coal and coal byproducts to produce nonfuel products; (5) the economics of coal utilization in comparison with other feedstocks that might be used for the same purposes; (6) the steps that can be taken by the public and private sectors to bring about commercialization of technologies developed under the program recommended; and (7) the past development, current status, and future potential of coal products and processes associated with nonfuel uses of coal. SEC. 1305. COAL REFINERY PROGRAM. (a) PROGRAM.—The Secretary shall conduct a program of research, development, demonstration, and commercial application for coal refining technologies. (b) OBJECTIVES.—The program shall include technologies for refining high sulfur coals, low-sulfur coals, subbituminous coals, and lignites to produce clean-burning transportation fuels, compliance boiler fuels, fuel additives, lubricants, chemical feedstocks, and carbon-based manufactured products, either alone or in conjunction with the generation of electricity or process heat, or the manufacture of a variety of products from coal. The objectives of such program shall be to achieve— (1) the timely commercial application of technologies, including mild gasification, hydrocracking and other hydropyrolysis processes, and other energy production processes or systems to produce coal-derived fuels and coproducts, which achieve greater efficiency and economy in the conversion of coal to electrical energy and coproducts than currently available technology; (2) the production of energy, fuels, and products which, on a complete energy system basis, will result in environmental emissions no greater than those produced by existing comparable energy systems utilized for the same purpose; (3) the capability to produce a range of coal-derived transportation fuels, including oxygenated hydrocarbons, boiler fuels, turbine fuels, and coproducts, which can reduce dependence on imported oil by displacing conventional petroleum in the transportation sector and other sectors of the economy; (4) reduction in the cost of producing such coal-derived fuels and coproducts; (5) the control of emissions from the combustion of coal-derived fuels; and (6) the availability for commercial use of such technologies by the year 2000. SEC. 1306. COALBED METHANE RECOVERY. (a) STUDY OF BARRIERS AND ENVIRONMENTAL AND SAFETY ASPECTS.—The Secretary, in consultation with the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency and the Secretary of the Interior, shall conduct a study of— (1) technical, economic, financial, legal, regulatory, institutional, or other barriers to coalbed methane recovery, and of policy options for eliminating such barriers; and

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--> (2) the environmental and safety aspects of flaring coalbed methane liberated from coal mines. Within two years after the date of enactment of this Act, the Secretary shall submit a report to the Congress detailing the results of such study. (b) INFORMATION DISSEMINATION.—Beginning one year after the date of enactment of this Act, the Secretary, in consultation with the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency and the Secretary of the Interior, shall disseminate to the public information on state-of-the-art coalbed methane recovery techniques, including information on costs and benefits. (C) DEMONSTRATION AND COMMERCIAL APPLICATION PROGRAM.—The Secretary, in consultation with the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency and the Secretary of the Interior, shall establish a coalbed methane recovery demonstration and commercial application program, which shall emphasize gas enrichment technology. Such program shall address (1) gas enrichment technologies for enriching medium-quality methane recovered from coal mines to pipeline quality; (2) technologies to use mine ventilation air in nearby power generation facilities, including gas turbines, internal combustion engines, or other coal fired powerplants; (3) technologies for cofiring methane recovered from mines, including methane from ventilation systems and degasification systems, together with coal in conventional or clean coal technology boilers; and (4) other technologies for producing and using methane from coal mines that the Secretary considers appropriate. SEC. 1307. METALLURGICAL COAL DEVELOPMENT. (a) The Secretary shall establish a research, development, demonstration, and commercial application program on metallurgical coal utilization for the purpose of developing techniques that will lead to the greater and more efficient utilization of the Nation's metallurgical coal resources. (b) The program referred to in subsection (a) shall include the use of metallurgical coal- (1) as a boiler fuel for the purpose of generating steam to produce electricity, including blending metallurgical coal with other coals in order to enhance its efficient application as a boiler fuel; (2) as an ingredient in the manufacturing of steel; and (3) as a source of pipeline quality coalbed methane. SEC. 1308. UTILIZATION OF COAL WASTES. (a) COAL WASTE UTILIZATION PROGRAM.—The Secretary, in consultation with the Secretary of the Interior, shall establish a research, development, demonstration, and commercial application program on coal waste utilization for the purpose of developing techniques that will lead to the greater and more efficient utilization of coal wastes from mining and processing, other than coal ash. (b) USE AS BOILER FUEL.—The program referred to in subsection (a) shall include projects to facilitate the use of coal wastes from mining and processing as a boiler fuel for the purpose of generating steam to produce electricity.

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--> PROJECT Sponsor Solicitation MW Scale of Project DOE Obligation (millions of dollars) Private Obligation (millions of dollars) Total Provisional Cost Estimate (millions of dollars) LIFAC SORBENT INJECTION DESULFURIZATION DEMONSTRATION PROJECT LIFAC-North America CCT-III 60 10.6 (50%) 10.8 (50%) 21.4 COMMERCIAL DEMONSTRATION OF THE NOXSO SO2/NOx REMOVAL FLUE GAS CLEANUP SYSTEM MK-Ferguson Company CCT-III 115 33.1 (50%) 33.1 (50%) 66.3 MILLIKEN CLEAN COAL TECHNOLOGY DEMONSTRATION PROJECT New York State Electric & Gas Corporation CCT-IV 300 45 (28%) 113.6 (72%) 158.6 INTEGRATED DRY NOx/SO2 EMISSIONS CONTROL SYSTEM Public Service Company of Colorado CCT-III 100 13.7 (50%) 13.7 (50%) 27.4 ADVANCED FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION DEMONSTRATION PROJECT Pure Air on the Lake, L.P. CCT-II 528 63.4 (42%) 87.0 (58%) 150.5 DEMONSTRATION OF ADVANCED COMBUSTION TECHNIQUES FOR A WALL-FIRED BOILER Southern Company Services, Inc. CCT-II 500 6.6 (45%) 8.3 (55%) 14.7 DEMONSTRATION OF INNOVATIVE APPLICATIONS OF TECHNOLOGY FOR THE CT-121 FGD PROCESS Southern Company Services, Inc. CCT-II 100 17.5 (49%) 18.3 (51%) 35.8 DEMONSTRATION OF SELECTIVE CATALYTIC REDUCTION TECHNOLOGY FOR THE CONTROL OF NOx EMISSIONS FROM HIGH-SULFUR COAL-FIRED BOILERS Southern Company Services, Inc. CCT-II 8.7 7.5 (48%) 8.0 (52%) 15.6

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--> 180-MWe DEMONSTRATION OF ADVANCED TANGENTIALLY FIRED COMBUSTION TECHNIQUES FOR REDUCTION OF NOx EMISSIONS FROM COAL-FIRED BOILERS Southern Company Services, Inc. CCT-II 180 4.4 (49%) 4.6 (51%) 9.0 MICRONIZED COAL REBURNING DEMONSTRATION FOR NOx CONTROL ON A 175-MWe WALL-FIRED UNIT Tennessee Valley Authority CCT-IV 175 3.5 (48%) 3.8 (52%) 7.3 DEVELOPMENT OF THE COAL QUALITY EXPERT ABB Combustion Engineering, Inc., and CQ, Inc. CCT-I 250-880 10.9 (50%) 10.9 (50%) 21.7 COMMERCIAL-SCALE DEMONSTRATION OF LIQUID-PHASE METHANOL (LPMEOHTM) PROCESS Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. CCT-III 150 tons/day of methanol 92.7 (43%) 121 (57%) 213.7 SELF-SCRUBBING COALTM: AN INTEGRATED APPROACH TO CLEAN AIR Custom Coals International CCT-IV 350 tons/hour 38 (47%) 43.7 (53%) 81.7 ENCOAL MILD COAL GASIFICATION PROJECT ENCOAL Corporation CCT-III 1,000 ton s/day of subbituminous coal feed 36.3 (50%) 36.3 (50%) 72.6 ADVANCED COAL CONVERSION PROCESS DEMONSTRATION Rosebud SynCoal Partnership CCT-I 45 tons/hour 34.5 (50%) 34.5 (50%) 69.0 BLAST FURNACE GRANULATED COAL INJECTION SYSTEM DEMONSTRATION PROJECT Bethlehem Steel Corporation CCT-III 7,000 net tons/day of hot metal 31.2 (22%) 112.5 (78%) 143.8 INNOVATIVE COKE OVEN GAS CLEANING SYSTEM FOR RETROFIT APPLICATIONS Bethlehem Steel Corporation CCT-II 74 mil std ft3/day of COG 13.5 (30%) 31.7 (70%) 45.2

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--> PROJECT Sponsor Solicitation MW Scale of Project DOE Obligation (millions of dollars) Private Obligation (millions of dollars) Total Provisional Cost Estimate (millions of dollars) ADVANCED CYCLONE COMBUSTOR WITH INTERNAL SULFUR, NITROGEN, AND ASH CONTROL Coal Tech Corporation CCT-I 23 mil Btu/hour 0.5 (50%) 0.5 (50%) 1.0b Completed CEMENT KILN FLUE GAS RECOVERY SCRUBBER Passamaquoddy Tribe CCT-II 1,450 tons/day of cement; 250,000 std/ft3 of kiln gas; up to 274 tons/day of coal 6.0 (36%) 10.5 (64%) 16.5 DEMONSTRATION OF PULSE COMBUSTION IN AN APPLICATION FOR STEAM GASIFICATION OF COAL ThermoChem, Inc. CCT-IV 161 million Btu/hour of 325 Btu/std ft3 medium-Btu fuel gas plus 40,000 lb/hr of export steam 18.7 (50%) 18.7 (50%) 37.3 INTEGRATED IRON ORE REDUCTION-POWER GENERATION Centerior Energy Corporation CCT-V         CLEAN COAL DIESEL ENGINE Easton Utility/A.D. Little CCT-V         a Projects are ongoing or pending final approval (CCT-V) unless otherwise stated. b Completed projects; figures represent total cost. Source: DOE (1994). Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program: Program Update 1993. Department of Energy, DOE/FE-0299P. Washington, D.C.: DOE.

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--> APPENDIX F Committee Meetings and Activities 1. Committee Meeting, November 22-23, 1993, Washington, D.C. The following presentations were made to the committee: Department of Energy Introduction and Expectations for the Study Doug Uthus, Director, Coal Combustion, Coal Preparation, and Control Systems, U.S. Department of Energy Scenarios for Coal Richard Dye, Manager, Fossil Fuel Utilization Program, U.S. Department of Energy Overview of DOE Coal Program Howard Feibus, Director, Office of Clean Coal Technology, U.S. Department of Energy Summary of Advanced Power Systems Effort Howard Feibus, Director, Office of Clean Coal Technology, U.S. Department of Energy Summary of Advanced Fuel Systems Effort Robert Hamilton, Acting Director, Office of Coal Conversion, U.S. Department of Energy Contributing Research Under AR&TD Program Dave Beecy, Director, Office of Advanced Research, U.S. Department of Energy DOE Perspective on EPACT 1992 Howard Feibus, Director, Office of Clean Coal Technology, U.S. Department of Energy

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--> 2. Power Generation/Technology Subgroup Meeting, January 13-14, 1994, Washington, D.C. The following presentations were made to the committee: Projections of Utility Industry Needs George Preston, Vice President, Generation and Storage, Electric Power Research Institute Larry Joseph, Senior Program Manager, Clean Coal Technology Program, U.S. Department of Energy Gary Styles, Manager, Special Projects, Southern Services Company Donald Hafer, Manager, Cogeneration and Performance, American Electric Power Company, Inc. Advanced Gas Turbines Sandy Webb, Product Manager, Heat Engines, Morgantown Energy Technology Center Hot Gas Cleanup Randy Dellefield, Product Manager, Pressurized Fluidized-Bed Combustion, Morgantown Energy Technology Center Fuel Cell Development Manville Mayfield, Product Manager, Fuel Cells, Morgantown Energy Technology Center Low-Emission Boilers Larry Ruth, Division Director, Coal Utilization, Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center Assessment of the Role of Government in Clean Coal Technology Larry Papay, Vice President and Manager of Research and Development, Bechtel Group, Inc. Past, Present, and Future Commercialization Activities in the Office of Fossil Energy Douglas Uthus, Director, Coal Combustion, Coal Preparation, and Control Systems, U.S. Department of Energy Direct Liquefaction Edgar Klunder, Project Coordinator, Direct Liquefaction, Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center Indirect Liquefaction Gary Stiegel, Project Coordinator, Indirect Liquefaction, Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center

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--> 3. Strategy/Policy Subgroup Meeting, January 27-28, 1994, Washington, D.C. The following presentations were made to the committee: The DOE Fiscal Year 1995 Budget: DOE/Fossil Energy Strategic Planning Process Jack Siegel, Acting Assistant Secretary, Office of Fossil Energy, U.S. Department of Energy George Rudins, Acting Deputy Assistant Secretary for Coal Technology, U.S. Department of Energy Jay Braitsch, Acting Director, Office of Planning and Environment, Office of Fossil Energy, U.S. Department of Energy The Regulatory Environment for the Utility Industry John Bachman, Associate Director, Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency An Alternative Energy Future John Hemphill, Executive Director, Business Council/Alliance to Save Energy Projections of Natural Gas Use and Price William Burnett, Senior Vice President, Technology Development, Gas Research Institute Costs of Greenhouse Gas Reductions Jae Edmonds, Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratories The U.S. Coal Resource Base Harold J. Gluskoter, U.S. Geological Survey 4. Committee Meeting, March 3-4, 1994, Washington, D.C. 5. Writing Group Meeting, April 21-22, 1994, Irvine, California 6. Committee Meeting, May 19-20, 1994, Washington, D.C.

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--> APPENDIX G Biographical Sketches of Committee Members John P. Longwell received his B.S. in mechanical engineering from the University of California, Berkeley, and his Sc.D. in chemical engineering from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). Dr. Longwell spent 33 years with Exxon Research and Engineering Company, where he was engaged in research and research management activities in the petroleum, petrochemical, and propulsion areas. He subsequently joined MIT as Edward R. Gilliland Professor of Chemical Engineering and is currently professor emeritus in the Department of Chemical Engineering. His research interests include the utilization of fossil energy resources, fuels and combustion systems, and the ecology of Idaho rivers and lakes. Dr. Longwell is a member of the National Academy of Engineering. Edward S. Rubin is the Alumni Professor of Environmental Engineering and Science at Carnegie Mellon University (CMU). He holds joint appointments in the Departments of Engineering and Public Policy and Mechanical Engineering and is director of CMU's Center for Energy and Environmental Studies. He earned a B.E. in mechanical engineering at the City College of New York and an M.S. and Ph.D. in mechanical engineering from Stanford University. His teaching and research interests at CMU are in the areas of environmental control, energy utilization, and technology-policy interactions, with a particular focus on coal-based systems. He has served as a member of technical and advisory committees to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the National Academy of Sciences and is a past chairman of the Environmental Control Division of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. Morrel H. Cohen received his B.S. from Worcester Polytechnic Institute, his M.A. from Dartmouth College, and his Ph.D. in physics from the University of

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--> California, Berkeley. Dr. Cohen held positions at the University of Chicago and the James Franck Institute before joining Exxon Research and Engineering Company as senior science advisor in the corporate research laboratories. He has also held concurrent positions at the Universities of Cambridge and Amsterdam and Argonne National Laboratory. Dr. Cohen's areas of interest include the theoretical physics of condensed matter, developmental biology, and energy policy. He is a member of the National Academy of Sciences. A. Denny Ellerman obtained his A.B. in public and international affairs from Princeton University and his Ph.D. in political economy and government from Harvard University. Following service with the U.S. Marine Corps, Dr. Ellerman held positions with the U.S. Departments of Defense, State, and Energy and the Office of Management and Budget. Later he was executive vice president of the National Coal Association. Dr. Ellerman is currently executive director of the Center for Energy and Environmental Policy Research and senior lecturer at the Sloan School of Management at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. His interests are primarily in energy economics and policy analysis. Robert D. Hall received his B.S. in chemical engineering from the University of Illinois. He then joined Sinclair Research Laboratories as a design engineer before taking up a position with Amoco Chemical Company. Mr. Hall served as director of design and economics and director of process research for the Amoco Oil Company, manager of strategic planning for the Information Services Department, and manager of management systems and planning in the Corporate Research Department before assuming his current position as general manager of the Alternative Feedstock Development Department. He has extensive expertise in scientific and engineering aspects of the production of liquid fuels and chemicals from biomass, natural gas, coal, oil shale, tar sands, and organic waste products. John W. Larsen earned his B.S. from Tufts University and his Ph.D. in chemistry from Purdue University. He was professor of chemistry at the University of Tennessee before joining Lehigh University, where he is currently professor of chemistry. His primary research interests are the organic chemistry and macromolecular structure of coal, coal conversion, and pyrolysis. Dr. Larsen is editor of the American Chemical Society journal, Energy and Fuels. Peter T. Luckie received his B.S. in fuel engineering, his M.S. in mineral preparation, and his Ph.D. in mineral processing, all from the Pennsylvania State University. Dr. Luckie's industrial experience includes positions with Pitt-Consol Chemical Company, HRB-Singer, Inc., Kennedy Van Saun Corporation, and McNally Pittsburgh Corporation, where he was corporate director for research and development. He is currently associate dean for research in the College of Earth and Mineral Sciences and professor of mineral engineering at the Pennsyl-

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--> vania State University. His principal research interests are in comminution, liberation, solid-solid separation, and circuit analysis. Maurice D. McIntosh received his B.S. in mechanical and nuclear engineering from North Carolina State University. He has 30 years of experience in the electric utility industry, primarily with Duke Power, where he is currently vice president of the Fossil/Hydro Generation Department. He has responsibility for the operation and maintenance of Duke Power's coal-fired and hydro stations and was previously manager of the McGuire Nuclear Station in North Carolina. George T. Preston obtained his B.S. from the California Institute of Technology and his Ph.D. from the University of California, Berkeley, both in chemical engineering. He was technical manager of resource recovery programs for Occidental Research Corporation before joining the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). His positions at EPRI have included that of director of environmental control systems and director of fossil power plants. He is currently vice president of generation. Eric H. Reichl received his M.S. in chemical engineering from the Technical University of Vienna. He has spent his entire professional career in the coal, gas, and oil industries, including 24 years with the R&D Division of Consolidation Coal Company. He is the former president of Conoco Coal Development Company. Mr. Reichl chaired the U.S. Department of Energy's Research Advisory Board panel, which issued a 1985 report entitled Clean Coal Use Technologies, and served briefly on the board of directors of the Synthetic Fuels Corporation. He has extensive expertise in coal conversion and associated environmental issues. He is a member of the National Academy of Engineering. Larry D. Woodfork earned his B.S. and A.M. degrees in geology from Indiana University. He has conducted extensive geological fieldwork and has been involved in exploration geology throughout the United States for the California Company (now Chevron), the Indiana Geological Survey, and Humble Oil and Refining Company (now Exxon). Mr. Woodfork is currently director and state geologist for the West Virginia Geological and Economic Survey and holds adjunct appointments as professor of geology and petroleum engineering at West Virginia University. His current research interests include the geology of fossil fuels and environmental geology. Mr. Woodfork is an honorary member of the American Association of Petroleum Geologists and a past president of the American Institute of Professional Geologists. John M. Wootten received his B.S. in mechanical engineering and his M.S. in civil engineering, both from the University of Missouri. He has spent most of his professional career with Peabody Holding Company, Inc., the largest producer and marketer of coal in the United States. His positions at Peabody and its

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--> subsidiaries have included that of director of environmental services, director of research and technology, vice president for engineering and operations services, and president of Coal Services Corporation (COALSERV). Mr. Wootten is currently vice president of engineering and environmental services for Peabody Holding Company, Inc. His areas of expertise include the environmental and combustion aspects of coal utilization, clean coal technologies, and environmental control technologies for coal combustion. NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL STAFF Mahadevan (Dev) Mani is the director of the Board on Energy and Environmental Systems of the NRC. He has been with the NRC since April 1989. The board conducts a program of studies and other activities to provide independent advice to the U.S. government and the private sector on issues in energy and environmental technology, and public policy. Dr. Mani came to the NRC from TRW, where he had held various positions since 1975. He was director, federal marketing development, for the Federal Systems Group of TRW's Space and Defense Sector from 1987 to 1989. Previously, he was director, planning and analysis, in TRW's Science and Technology department. From 1975 to 1983 he was with TRW's Energy Development Group, responsible for the management of projects undertaken for the U.S. Energy Research and Development Administration, U.S. Department of Energy, the Energy Information Administration, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and other clients. Dr. Mani received his Ph.D. in energy management and policy from the University of Pennsylvania, his M.S. in materials engineering from Drexel University, and his B.Tech in metallurgy from the Indian Institute of Technology, Madras. Wendy Orr is a project assistant in the NRC's Board on Energy and Environmental Systems. She has been with the NRC since 1993. She received her B.A. in political science, with a minor in education, from the University of Southern California and taught high school social science for two years in Long Beach. Ms. Orr is currently studying toward a master's degree in bilingual/multicultural education at George Mason University. Jill Wilson is a program officer with the Board on Energy and Environmental Systems and was study director for the Strategic Assessment of the U.S. Department of Energy's Coal Program. She joined the NRC in March 1993 and has worked on studies relating to issues in energy and materials engineering. Dr. Wilson was previously a research scientist with a small consulting company in Washington, D.C., investigating aspects of submarine technology. Before coming to the United States in 1988, she was responsible for advanced materials development at British Aerospace Military Aircraft Division, Warton, United Kingdom. She received her B.A. in natural sciences and her Ph.D. in physics,

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--> both from the University of Cambridge. She also holds a diploma in liberal arts from the University of Toulouse, France. James J. Zucchetto is a senior program officer with the Board on Energy and Environmental Systems. He has been with the NRC since April 1985 and has worked on a variety of energy and related environmental issues affecting public policy. Prior to joining the NRC he was a faculty member in the School of Arts and Sciences, University of Pennsylvania, and has held positions at the University of Stockholm, Institute of Marine Ecology; the Department of Environmental Engineering Sciences, University of Florida; and Bell Telephone Laboratories. He is currently on the editorial advisory boards of the International Journal of Environmental Engineering and Ecological Modeling, and the Journal of Ecological Economics. He received his Ph.D. in environmental engineering sciences from the University of Florida, his M.S.M.E. from New York University, and his B.S.M.E. from the Polytechnic Institute of Brooklyn.