Index

A

Acid rain, 56-57, 251

Advanced Clean/Efficient Power Systems, 2

  budget, 30-32, 160-161, 197

  EPACT and, 14, 209

  R&D activities and goals, 3, 6-7, 197, 207

Advanced Clean Fuels program, 2-3

  budget, 3, 30-32, 106

  coal cleaning research in, 77

  goals, 3

Advanced fuel systems

  demonstration projects, 157-158

  DOE RD&D activities, 34, 35, 36, 196

  opportunities for development, 163-164

Advanced power systems

  demonstration projects, 258-262

  DOE cost and efficiency projections, 183-186

  DOE RD&D program, 34-36

  efficiency classifications, 7, 182-183, 186-189

  emissions control goals, 145, 189-191

  export market, 40-41

  gas cleanup technology and, 9-10, 193

  potential efficiencies, 144-145

  prospects for innovation, 173

  pulverized coal, 115-117

  R&D funding, 10-11, 34, 43, 195

  recommendations, 6-11, 194-195

  research goals, 34-36, 113-114, 152, 162-163

  solid waste products, 145-146

  systems analysis of, 13, 203-204

Advanced Research and Energy Technology, 160-161

Advanced Research and Technology Development

  biotechnology research, 166

  budget, 30, 106, 160-161

  coal cleaning research in, 77, 78

  purpose and structure, 3

Advanced Turbine Systems program, 137

Alkylation coprocessing, 166

Atmospheric fluidized-bed combustion, 119, 120, 121, 122, 123, 124

B

Baseload

  definition, 46

  projected requirements, 61

Biomass energy production, 52

Bioprocessing research, 166-167



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OCR for page 277
--> Index A Acid rain, 56-57, 251 Advanced Clean/Efficient Power Systems, 2   budget, 30-32, 160-161, 197   EPACT and, 14, 209   R&D activities and goals, 3, 6-7, 197, 207 Advanced Clean Fuels program, 2-3   budget, 3, 30-32, 106   coal cleaning research in, 77   goals, 3 Advanced fuel systems   demonstration projects, 157-158   DOE RD&D activities, 34, 35, 36, 196   opportunities for development, 163-164 Advanced power systems   demonstration projects, 258-262   DOE cost and efficiency projections, 183-186   DOE RD&D program, 34-36   efficiency classifications, 7, 182-183, 186-189   emissions control goals, 145, 189-191   export market, 40-41   gas cleanup technology and, 9-10, 193   potential efficiencies, 144-145   prospects for innovation, 173   pulverized coal, 115-117   R&D funding, 10-11, 34, 43, 195   recommendations, 6-11, 194-195   research goals, 34-36, 113-114, 152, 162-163   solid waste products, 145-146   systems analysis of, 13, 203-204 Advanced Research and Energy Technology, 160-161 Advanced Research and Technology Development   biotechnology research, 166   budget, 30, 106, 160-161   coal cleaning research in, 77, 78   purpose and structure, 3 Advanced Turbine Systems program, 137 Alkylation coprocessing, 166 Atmospheric fluidized-bed combustion, 119, 120, 121, 122, 123, 124 B Baseload   definition, 46   projected requirements, 61 Biomass energy production, 52 Bioprocessing research, 166-167

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--> Bitumen, 53-54, 62 Brayton cycle, 134 C Capital cost learning curve, 151 Carbon dioxide, 4, 5   emission control technologies, 59, 144-145, 190, 192, 194   emissions goals, 29   global warming concerns, 58, 252-253   international agreements, 58-59   marketability of power generation systems and, 187   recommendations for R&D, 196 Catalysis research, 165-167 Ceramic heat exchangers, 8, 117, 118   advantages, 169   current research activity, 170-171   disadvantages, 169, 170   for EFCC systems, 169   prospects for innovation, 173 Ceramic membranes, 171-172, 173 Chemicals industry, 55-56 China, 1, 3, 33, 157   coal export potential, 39   new construction for electricity generation, 40   pollution controls, 41   retrofit of power-generating facilities, 40 Clean Air Act, 56, 57, 248 Clean Coal Technologies RD&D Program Plan, 34 Clean Coal Technology (CCT) program budget, 2 Clean Coal Technologies RD&D Program Plan vs., 34   coal gasification programs, 93   coal-water slurry projects, 81   commercialization activities, 14, 158, 205-206   commercialization goals, 151-152   cost and risk sharing in, 2, 151-152, 156   current status, 2   demonstration projects, 32, 89, 152-155, 157-158, 258-262   EPACT and, 32-33, 235, 238-242   export market, 40   funding, 24, 28, 32, 36   future of, 155-157   goals, 2, 3, 28, 36, 150   international activities, 32-33, 156-157   patent rights, 152   PFBC demonstration, 121   recommendations for, 10-11, 206   technology transfer activities, 238-242 Clean Water Act, 253 Climate Change Action Plan, 29, 82, 83 Coal cleaning   coal liquefaction and, 181   current R&D programs, 77-78, 181   current technology, 77, 181   definition, 75, 180   development history, 76-77   DOE activity, 77-78, 79   as export technology, 78-79   prospects for innovation, 78-79, 181   for pulverized coal power generation systems, 114   purpose of, 75   recommendations regarding, 182   steps in, 75-76 Coal-liquid mixtures   commercial prospects, 81   current R&D programs, 80-81, 181   current technology, 80, 181   definition, 7   development history, 79-80   economics of, 79, 80   EPACT provisions, 243-244   prospects for innovation, 181   recommendation regarding, 182 Coal-oil mixtures, 79 Coal production   coal cleaning technologies, 75-79   demonstrated reserve base, 3-4, 19, 46   domestic economy and, 39   for industrial use, 54-55   methane release/recovery in, 59n, 59-60, 81-84, 173, 182, 232-233   trends in, 39 Coal refinery concept, 106, 109, 111, 200-201

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--> Coal refinery concept (cont)   EPACT provisions, 232 Coal research and development   advanced systems research in DOE, 162-163   bioprocessing of coal, 166-167   coal cleaning, 76-78, 181   coal-liquid mixtures, 80-81, 181   coal refinery programs, 109, 111   coalbed methane recovery, 82-83, 181   combustion and gasification systems, 163-164   combustion turbine technology, 137-138   conversion and catalysis, 165-166   determinants of, 23   direct liquefaction, 102, 103-104   DOE budget, 160-161   electric utility regulatory environment and, 42-43   emission control technology, 141, 144, 145-146   federal funding trends, 27-29, 36   Fischer-Tropsch synthesis products, 100-102   fluidized-bed combustion, 121-124   gasification technologies, 86-95   integrated gasification combined-cycle systems, 126-127   integrated gasification fuel cell systems, 131-132   international activities, 24-25, 156-157   materials research, 167-172   private sector activities, 23-24   pulverized coal systems, 115-119 Coal-water mixtures/slurries, 79, 80, 81, 181   in direct coal-fired heat engines, 117-118 Coalbed methane recovery, 173, 232-233   commercial prospects, 83-94   current programs, 82-83   current technology, 82, 181   opportunity for, 81-82 Coke plants, 19, 38   coal consumption, 40, 55   coal quality for, 40   technological trends, 55 Commercialization   coal cleaning technologies, 78   coal gasification technologies, 87-88, 92-93, 109-110   coal-liquid mixtures, 81   coalbed methane recovery technologies, 83-84   coproducts from coal gasification, 106-107, 111, 197-199, 202   demonstration requirements, 151, 205   efficiency of power generation systems and, 187, 193   as element of Clean Coal Technology program, 14, 28, 32, 34, 205-206   EPACT requirements, 150, 205, 209   fluidized-bed combustion technologies, 121, 122   hydrogen derived from coal gasification process, 96, 110, 197, 202   integrated gasification fuel cell systems, 130   methanol derived from coal gasification, prospects for, 98-100   obstacles to, 150-151   as R&D investment criterion, 195   recommendations, 10-11, 206   synthetic natural gas, 97, 98 Coproduction systems, 5, 11-12   coal liquefaction and, 12-13, 200   coal refinery concept and, 201   cogeneration, 106-107   commercial prospects, 111, 202   direct liquefaction and, 108-109   DOE R&D, 109, 111, 209   efficiency, 197   EPACT requirements, 209   indirect liquefaction and, 108   projected capacity, 44   recommendations for, 13, 203   regulatory environment, 43   types of, 106 D Demonstration projects   advanced emission control systems, 153-154

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--> Demonstration projects (cont)   advanced fuel systems, 157-158   Advanced Power System, 152   advanced pulverized coal systems, 155   Clean Coal Technology, 32, 89, 121, 152-155, 157-158, 258-262   in commercialization process, 151, 205   direct coal liquefaction, 202   direct-fired systems, 154   federal funding for, 30   fuel cell technology, 129, 155   gasification systems, 88, 89   indirectly-fired systems, 155   integrated gasification combined-cycle systems, 154   integrated gasification fuel cell power plants, 130, 131-132   international efforts, 156   pressurized fluidized-bed combustion, 121, 154 Depolymerization, 166 Direct liquefaction, 11, 12, 102-105, 108-109, 166, 199-200 DOE. See Energy, Department of Domestic resource base coal, 3-4, 19, 46   liquid hydrocarbon, 53-54   natural gas, 48   projections, 3-4 E Eastern Europe, 4, 33, 157 Economics   capital cost learning curve, 151   carbon dioxide emission control, 145   of Clean Coal Technology program, 151-152, 156   coal liquefaction, 108, 110-111, 202   coal-liquid mixtures, 80   coal pyrolysis, 105-106   coal refinery products, 201   coal transport, 39   computational basis of costs, 2, 2n   cost of fuel in electrical generation, 183   crude oil, 51   demonstration and commercialization, 151,205, 206   direct coal liquefaction, 103, 104, 110-111, 199-200   DOE advanced power system projections, 183-186   electricity generation R&D, 8, 42-43   emission control, 140, 141, 145   energy cost projections, 46-53, 68   heavy oils and bitumen, 54   integrated gasification combined-cycle systems, 125-126, 127   integrated gasification fuel cell systems, 130-131, 132   liquefaction processes, 11-12, 158   liquefied natural gas, 51   methanol production in coal gasification, 99-100   projected coal costs, 1, 4   projected natural gas costs, 1, 47-50   projected petroleum costs, 1, 62   pulverized coal power generation, 115   renewable energy production, 52   research costs, recommendations for, 10-11, 195, 206   strategic planning assumptions, 4, 5, 11n, 61   synthetic natural gas, coal-derived, 198   transportation fuels from coal, 35-36, 199   U.S. coal market, trends in, 39-40 Efficiencies   advanced power systems, 7, 8, 9   carbon dioxide emissions and, 59, 190   classification of power generating systems, 7, 182-183   coal cleaning for, 75   coal-fired power plants, 144   combustion turbine technology, 135, 136, 137   coproduction systems, 197   current technologies, 186-189   fluidized-bed combustion, 120, 123, 154, 183   fuel cell technology, 128-129   gasification systems, 90-91, 92, 197   integrated gasification combined-cycle systems, 126, 182, 183

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--> Efficiencies (cont)   integrated gasification fuel cell systems, 130, 182   liquefaction systems, 11   magnetohydrodynamic power generation, 133   natural gas-fired advanced turbine systems, 167   power generation goals, 6, 183-186   projected electricity demand and, 44   prospects for improving, 144-145, 183-186, 192-193   in pulverized coal power generation systems, 114-115, 119, 155, 183 Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), 24, 43, 76 Electrical power generation   advantages of natural gas, 4   alternative strategic scenarios, 65, 68   coal consumption for, 4, 19, 38, 41   coal waste products, 60, 254   combustion turbine technology, 134-135   efficiency, 6, 7, 144   emission control goals, 6-7   emission control technology, 138-143   environmental concerns, 60, 61-62 EPACT coal provisions, 231   financial environment, 35-36   fluidized-bed combustion systems, 119-121   fuel cell systems, 128-130   future scenarios, 22-23   global trends, 40   integrated gasification combined-cycle systems for, 124-125   magnetohydrodynamic systems for, 132-133   new technology development, 42-43   non-utility generators, 42, 44   percentage of use of fuel sources for, 19   private sector research and development, 24   projected demand, 43-44, 61   projected demand for coal, 46-47, 50   projected demand for liquefied natural gas, 50-51   projected demand for nuclear power, 51-52   projected demand for oil, 51   projected natural gas utilization, 47-50, 61   projected new capacity requirements, 44-46   pulverized coal systems, 114-115, 119, 155, 183   recommendations for DOE R&D, 8-9, 180   regulatory trends, 41-43, 60-62, 254-255   rehabilitation and retrofit for, 40, 46, 50, 123   renewable energy in, 52-53   research and development efforts, 113-114   source of pollutants in, 138, 139   state regulatory trends, 60-61, 254-255   strategic planning assumptions, 4, 5, 61   technology export market, 4, 40-41   See also Advanced power systems;   Coproduction systems Electromagnetic field exposure, 255 Electrostatic precipitator, 138-139 Emission controls   for acid deposition, 251   in advanced power systems, 8-9, 153-154   air quality standards, 248-251   air toxics, 251-252   alternative strategic scenarios, 65, 68   bioprocessing techniques, 166-167   for carbon dioxide, 59, 144-145, 190, 192, 194   CCT demonstration projects, 153-154   coal preparation, 75, 76, 78   coal-related-technology exports and, 40-41, 62   coalbed methane recovery, 81-84, 173, 181   for combustion turbine emissions, 135, 136   costs, 140, 141, 145   current technology, 56, 57-58, 140-143   development challenges and opportunities, 143-145, 190-191   development needs, 191-192

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--> Emission controls (cont)   DOE R&D, 6-7, 141, 144, 145-146, 189-190   DOE strategic objectives, 189-190, 194   effectiveness, 140-143   electromagnetic field exposure, 255   externality adders, 254-255   flue gas desulfurization, 10, 139, 140, 144, 192   for fuel cell technologies, 128, 129   future of coal use and, 1, 19, 61-62   global warming concerns, 58-59, 62, 252-253   for heavy metals, 144   in integrated gasification combined-cycle systems, 138-139, 141-143, 145, 146   international activities, 24-25, 41   long-term considerations, 190-191   marketability of power generation systems and, 187, 193   membrane materials research, 171-172   for mercury emissions, 144, 190, 252   for noncriteria pollutants, 144, 190   for particulate matter, 249-250   plant siting issues, 254-255   in pressurized fluidized-bed combustion, 138-139, 141, 142-143, 144 , 145, 146   prospects for, 146, 194   recommendations, 6, 195-196   regulatory trends, 56-57, 58-59, 60-61, 62, 189-190, 254-255   salable by-products from, 143, 146   selective catalytic reduction, 140-141   solid waste, 139-140, 143-144, 145-146, 191, 192, 194, 195-196, 254   strategic planning assessment criteria, 70   strategic planning assumptions, 4, 5, 61-62   technical basis, 138-139   water quality standards, 253   See also specific pollutant Energy, Department of (DOE)   advanced power systems R&D, 7-8, 192-193, 194-195   bioprocessing of coal, research in, 166   budget data, 246-247   Clean Coal Technologies Research, Development, and Demonstration   Program Plan, 34-36   coal catalysis research, 165   coal cleaning R&D, 77-78, 79, 181   coal gasification programs, 93, 95, 106, 201-202, 203   coal liquefaction programs, 12-13, 14-15, 165, 182, 203   coal-liquid mixtures R&D, 80-81, 182   coal program, 2-3, 75   coal program objectives, recommendations for, 5-6, 208, 219   coal program trends, 27-29, 36   coal refinery and coproduction programs, 109, 111,209   coal refinery studies, 201   Coal Strategic Plan, 22, 34   coalbed methane recovery programs, 82-83, 182   combustion turbine research, 137-138   cross-cutting activities, 25, 34, 36, 160-161, 190   demonstration and commercialization activities, 150, 151, 205-206   direct liquefaction research, 103, 104, 105   efficiency goals for advanced power systems, 183-186   electric utility deregulation and, 42   electrical power generation R&D, 113-114   emission control targets, 6-7, 192   emission control technology research, 141, 144, 145-146, 194 EPACT compliance by, 14-15, 33, 208-219, 225-227 EPACT provisions for, 1, 5, 21-22, 150, 223-225, 228-245   fluidized-bed combustion research, 120, 121, 122, 124   IGCC systems research, 126, 127   information management on coal-related technology, 209, 219, 244   integrated gasification fuel cell research, 131-132

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--> Energy, Department of (DOE) (cont)   magnetohydrodynamics research, 133   mission statement, 33   organizational structure for R&D, 160-161   pulverized coal systems research, 115-119   R&D budget, 160-161   role of, 70-71   role of advanced research in, 162-163   solid waste management R&D, 192, 195-196   strategic planning framework and assessment criteria, 33, 36-37, 64-65, 68-71, 194-195, 223-227   strategic planning horizon, recommendations for, 5, 179-180   systems analysis activities, recommendations for, 13, 205   See also specific programs Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPACT), 1, 5, 43, 109   carbon dioxide emissions in, 59   Clean Coal Technology programs and, 32-33, 155-156   on clearinghouse for coal-related technologies, 209, 219, 244   coal provisions, 20, 21-22, 180, 208   coal refinery concept in, 201   coalbed methane recovery requirements, 82, 182   competition in wholesale power market and, 20, 42   demonstration and commercialization requirements, 150, 209   DOE coal activities and, 1, 5, 21-22, 150, 156-157, 223-225   DOE response to, 14-15, 33, 208-219, 225-227   goals, 20   projected electricity demand and, 44   strategic planning recommendations and, 14, 208-219   text of coal section, 228-245 Energy policy trends, 27-29, 41-43 Energy Security Act, 27 Entrained-flow gasification, 86-88, 89, 125 EPACT. See Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPACT) European Union, 24-25 Export/import markets, 4   clean coal technology transfer, 238-242   coal-exporting countries, 38-39   coal-importing countries, 39   coal preparation technology, 78-79   coal utilization technology, 40-41, 62   efficiency of power generation systems and, 187, 193   electrical generation technologies, 4, 40-41 EPACT provisions, 156-157, 235-238, 238-242, 244   global competition, 39, 40   imported coal costs, 39   projected natural gas, 49   projections for coal, 4   U.S. coal exports, 39-40 Externality adders, 254-255 Externally-fired combined-cycle systems, 7, 115, 117, 155, 169, 170 , 173, 182 F Fischer-Tropsch process, 11-12, 96, 100-102, 199 Fixed-bed gasification, 86, 88-89 Fluidized-bed processes, 86, 88, 89, 91, 99, 119-121   current programs, 121   current technology, 121   development challenges and opportunities, 122-124, 187   efficiency, 120, 123, 154, 197   prospects for, 124, 197 Fossil Energy Research and Development (DOE), 2   advanced power system R&D in, 30, 99   advanced research programs, 160-162   budget, 2, 27, 246-247   budget categories, 30, 34.   See also specific budget categories   budget trends, 29-32, 36   coal activities, 2-3, 36   coal gasification programs, 93, 197

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--> Fossil Energy Research and Development (DOE)   demonstration projects, 152, 154, 155, 158-159, 205, 206   gas turbine research, 167   purpose, 2   recommendations for, 10, 206 Fuel cell technology   advantages of, 128-129   current technology, 8, 129   demonstration projects, 155   DOE R&D, 2, 188   efficiency, 128-129   federal R & D funding, 29n, 30   prospects for development, 188-189   recommendations, 195   technical challenges, 188   technological basis, 128, 129   See also Integrated gasification fuel cell systems Future of coal use   advanced power systems and, 7-8   advanced research programs and, 163, 173   alternative strategic scenarios, 65, 68   combustion turbine technology, 138   determinants of, 1, 3, 19-20, 25, 38, 41   DOE and, 21-22   emission control technologies, 146, 190-191   environmental issues in, 56-62   fluidized-bed combustion systems, 124   gasification technology and, recommendation for, 11-13   integrated gasification combined-cycle systems, 126-127   integrated gasification fuel cell systems, 131-132   magnetohydrodynamic power generation, 133-134   planning horizons, 1, 5-6, 22-23, 38, 64, 179-180   projected electricity demand, 43-46   pulverized coal combustion systems, 119   strategic planning assumptions, 3-5, 22-23, 61, 64-65   technological developments needed, 85 G Gas cleanup technologies, 8   air-blown systems in, 11, 90-91, 92   in coal gasification systems, 89-91, 92, 93, 187   in combustion turbine systems, 136   development needs, 194   for fluidized-bed combustion systems, 123, 187, 194   in gas turbine systems, 168, 171, 183, 188   nitrogen oxide removal, 139, 192   recommendations, 9-10, 195   sulfur dioxide removal, 139, 192 Gas turbine technology   advanced systems, research goals for, 167   coal gasification technology and, 168-169, 189   current R&D programs, 2, 137-138   current technology, 8, 134-135, 187   demonstration projects, 154   development challenges and opportunities, 135-137, 168, 188-189   efficiency and projected efficiency, 135, 136, 137, 183, 188   emissions, 135   heat exchanger research, 170   hot gas cleanup systems in, 168, 171, 183   importance of, 167   for integrated gasification combined-cycle systems, 124, 126   materials R&D for, 168-169   metallurgy, 136-137   prospects for, 138, 173, 187-188, 193   recommendations, 9-10, 195   technological basis, 134 Gasification systems   challenges to development, 91-93, 163-164   current R&D programs, 34-35, 93-95, 197   current technology, 86-89, 109   development history, 86

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--> Gasification systems (cont)   DOE RD&D activities, 34-35, 197   efficiency, 90-91, 92, 183, 189, 196-197   federal R & D support, 27-28, 197   Fischer-Tropsch process in, 96, 100-102   gas products from, 11, 96, 110, 197-199, 202   for gas turbine use, 168-169, 183, 189   hydrogen production in, 96-97, 197, 202   in IGCC systems performance, 89-91   integrated with fuel cells. See Integrated gasification fuel cell systems   liquid products from synthesis gas, 98-100, 110-111   mild gasification technology, 157-158   nitrogen oxide formation in, 164   private sector research and development, 24   prospects for, 109-110, 173, 193, 196-197, 201-202   recommendations, 9-12, 195, 203   synthetic natural gas production in, 97-98   systems analysis of, 13   See also Integrated gasification combined-cycle Geothermal energy, 52 Global warming concerns, 58-59, 62, 82, 252-253 Great Plains Gasification Plant, 24, 97 Greenhouse gasses/effects concerns, 58, 252   emission control strategies, 58-60, 252-253   methane as, 82   policy goals, 29, 252 H Heat exchanger technology. See Ceramic heat exchangers Heavy oil, 53-54, 62 High-performance power system, 7, 115, 118, 155, 182 Higher heating value, 2 Hydroelectric power, 52 Hydrogen, coal-derived, 96, 110, 197, 202 I Independent power producers, 42 Indirect liquefaction, 11-12, 108 Industrial use of coal, 19, 54-55 Integrated gasification advanced-cycle (IGAC) systems, 7, 126, 182 , 187-188 Integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) systems, 6, 7   advantages of, 124, 126-127   current R&D programs, 126   current technology, 125   demonstration projects, 154   development challenges and opportunities, 126   economics of, 12, 50, 126, 127   efficiency, 126, 182, 183, 187-188   electrical power system components, 113   emission control technology, 139, 141-143, 145, 146, 192   gas cleanup technologies and, 9-10   gasification technology and, 89-91   process, 124   prospects for, 126-127   R&D funding, 32   recommendations, 9-10, 10, 11-13, 195 Integrated gasification fuel cell (IGFC) systems   advantages, 9, 129-130   current R&D programs, 131   current technology, 129-130   development challenges and opportunities, 8, 130-131   economics, 130-131, 132   efficiency and projected efficiencies, 7, 9, 130, 182, 183, 188   prospects for, 131-132, 188, 193   See also Fuel cell technology J Japan, 24, 39

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--> L Liquefaction of coal   coal catalysis and, 165-166   coal cleaning for, 181   coal pyrolysis and, 105-106   coproduct system, 5   decline in research activity, 165, 199   direct methods, 11, 12, 102-105, 108-109, 166, 199-200, 202   DOE R&D, 35, 56, 203   economics, 11-12, 103, 104, 110-111, 158, 196, 199-200, 202   efficiency, 11, 196, 202   emission controls in production process, 196   in EPACT provisions, 14-15, 234-235   federal R & D support, 27-28   indirect method, 11-12, 108   long-term planning, 5   by pyrolysis, 200   R&D needs, 202   recommendations, 12-13, 203   strategic planning assumptions, 4   systems, 11-12   for transportation fuels, 35, 202 Liquefied natural gas, 50-51 Low-emission boiler systems, 193   efficiency, 7, 182, 187   in pulverized coal systems, 115-117, 118, 119, 155   recommendations, 8, 195 M Magnetohydrodynamic power generation   current technology, 132-133   development challenges, 133   efficiency, 133, 189   in EPACT provisions, 234   prospects for, 133-134, 189   research, 14, 32, 133-134, 189   technological basis, 132 Materials research, 167   gas turbine systems, 167-169, 173   heat exchangers, 169-171   inorganic membranes, 171-172, 202   thermal barrier coatings, 169 Membrane R&D, 171-172, 173 Mercury, 144, 190, 252 Methane   in coal gasification, 92, 198   coalbed release/recovery, 59n, 59-60, 81-84, 173, 181, 182, 232-233   as greenhouse gas, 82 Methanol, coal-derived, 98-100, 198 Molten carbonate fuel cells, 129, 130-131, 193 Morgantown Energy Technology Center, 13, 109, 204 N National Coal Council, 155, 156, 205-206 National Energy Strategy report, 28 Natural gas   advantages in electrical generation, 4   alternative strategic scenarios, 65, 68   in cogeneration systems, 106-107   EPACT provisions, 297   greenhouse emissions policy and, 29   projected costs, 1, 4   projections for demand and availability, 47-50, 61   R&D activities, 9   total use of, for energy production, 19   See also Synthetic natural gas New Source Performance Standards, 7, 189, 248, 249, 250, 254 Nitrogen oxides, 4   from coal combustion, 60   in coal gas-phase chemistry, 164   combustion turbine emissions, 135, 136   development needs for control of, 194   DOE emission goals, 6, 145   in electrical power generation, 139   emission control technologies, 58, 139, 140-141, 250   environmental regulation, 56, 58   fluidized-bed combustion emissions, 120, 123-124   fuel cell systems emissions, 128   in photochemical ozone, 56n, 250-251   pulverized coal systems emissions, 117

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--> Non-utility generators, 42 Nuclear power, 1, 51-52, 61 O Oil and petroleum   alternative strategic scenarios, 65, 68   embargo of 1973, 23, 27, 79, 86, 102, 105, 199   projected costs, 1, 62, 108   projected demand and utilization, 51   total use of, for energy production, 19 Oil embargo of 1973, 23, 27, 79, 86, 102, 105, 199 Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, 24 Ozone, photochemical, 56, 56n, 250-251 P Patent rights, 152 Peak load, 46 Petroleum. See Oil and petroleum Phosphoric acid fuel cell, 129 Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, 13, 76, 204 Pressurized fluidized-bed combustion (PFBC), 120-121, 122-123, 124   demonstration projects, 154   economic performance, 50   efficiency, 7, 182, 183, 187   emission control technology, 139, 141, 142-143, 144, 145, 146, 192   funding, 34   future of, 7   gas cleanup technologies and, 10   recommendations, 10   solid waste from, 192   technological status, 8-9 Public Utility Regulatory Policy Act of 1979, 42 Pulverized coal systems   advanced systems in CCT demonstration projects, 155   current R&D programs, 115-118   current technology, 114-115   efficiency and potential efficiency, 114-115, 119, 155, 183   power generation process, 114   prospects for improvement, 119   technical challenges, 118-119 PyGasTM gasification system, 93, 95 Pyrolysis of coal, 105-106, 158   direct liquefaction by, 200   research needs, 164 R RDD&C programs   advanced research programs, 207   DOE coal programs, 2   EPACT provisions, 228-230   in EPACT provisions for coal, 20   future of coal use and, 19-20   recommendations for, 5-6, 180   strategic planning scenarios, 64-65, 68-71   systems analysis in, 13, 204-205 Renewable energy, 52-53, 61 Repowering   economic decisionmaking, 50   fluidized-bed combustion systems for, 123   international technology markets, 40   projected electricity capacity and, 46 S Solar energy, 52 Solid oxide fuel cell, 129 Solid waste management, 5, 139-140, 191, 192, 194, 195-196, 254 Sulfur dioxide, 4   DOE emission goals, 6, 145   electrical power generation emissions, 139   emission control technologies, 58, 139, 140, 141-142   environmental regulations, 56, 57   fluidized-bed combustion emissions, 123-124   management trends, 248-249 Supercritical steam units, 114-115 Synthetic fuels   private sector research and development, 23-24

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--> Synthetic fuels (cont)   strategic planning assumptions, 4 Synthetic Fuels Corporation, 27 Synthetic natural gas, 11   commercial prospects, 98, 197-198, 202   DOE R&D, 35   production of, 97-98, 110   recommendations, 203 Systems analysis, 13-14, 203-205 T Technology transfer, 238-242 Tennessee Eastern syngas-to-chemicals plant, 24 Thermal barrier coatings, 169 THERMIE program, 24-25 Transportation fuels, coal-based   cost estimates, 35-36   direct liquefaction of coal for, 102-103   Fischer-Tropsch synthesis products, 100, 199   methanol derived from coal gasification as, 98-99   R&D, 35 U Utility financing, 35-36 W Wastewater treatment, coal in, 56 Water quality concerns, 253 Wind energy, 52 World Bank, 41 World coal use, trends in, 1