Bitumen, 53-54, 62

Brayton cycle, 134

C

Capital cost learning curve, 151

Carbon dioxide, 4, 5

  emission control technologies, 59, 144-145, 190, 192, 194

  emissions goals, 29

  global warming concerns, 58, 252-253

  international agreements, 58-59

  marketability of power generation systems and, 187

  recommendations for R&D, 196

Catalysis research, 165-167

Ceramic heat exchangers, 8, 117, 118

  advantages, 169

  current research activity, 170-171

  disadvantages, 169, 170

  for EFCC systems, 169

  prospects for innovation, 173

Ceramic membranes, 171-172, 173

Chemicals industry, 55-56

China, 1, 3, 33, 157

  coal export potential, 39

  new construction for electricity generation, 40

  pollution controls, 41

  retrofit of power-generating facilities, 40

Clean Air Act, 56, 57, 248

Clean Coal Technologies RD&D Program Plan, 34

Clean Coal Technology (CCT) program budget, 2

Clean Coal Technologies RD&D Program Plan vs., 34

  coal gasification programs, 93

  coal-water slurry projects, 81

  commercialization activities, 14, 158, 205-206

  commercialization goals, 151-152

  cost and risk sharing in, 2, 151-152, 156

  current status, 2

  demonstration projects, 32, 89, 152-155, 157-158, 258-262

  EPACT and, 32-33, 235, 238-242

  export market, 40

  funding, 24, 28, 32, 36

  future of, 155-157

  goals, 2, 3, 28, 36, 150

  international activities, 32-33, 156-157

  patent rights, 152

  PFBC demonstration, 121

  recommendations for, 10-11, 206

  technology transfer activities, 238-242

Clean Water Act, 253

Climate Change Action Plan, 29, 82, 83

Coal cleaning

  coal liquefaction and, 181

  current R&D programs, 77-78, 181

  current technology, 77, 181

  definition, 75, 180

  development history, 76-77

  DOE activity, 77-78, 79

  as export technology, 78-79

  prospects for innovation, 78-79, 181

  for pulverized coal power generation systems, 114

  purpose of, 75

  recommendations regarding, 182

  steps in, 75-76

Coal-liquid mixtures

  commercial prospects, 81

  current R&D programs, 80-81, 181

  current technology, 80, 181

  definition, 7

  development history, 79-80

  economics of, 79, 80

  EPACT provisions, 243-244

  prospects for innovation, 181

  recommendation regarding, 182

Coal-oil mixtures, 79

Coal production

  coal cleaning technologies, 75-79

  demonstrated reserve base, 3-4, 19, 46

  domestic economy and, 39

  for industrial use, 54-55

  methane release/recovery in, 59n, 59-60, 81-84, 173, 182, 232-233

  trends in, 39

Coal refinery concept, 106, 109, 111, 200-201



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