Coal refinery concept (cont)

  EPACT provisions, 232

Coal research and development

  advanced systems research in DOE, 162-163

  bioprocessing of coal, 166-167

  coal cleaning, 76-78, 181

  coal-liquid mixtures, 80-81, 181

  coal refinery programs, 109, 111

  coalbed methane recovery, 82-83, 181

  combustion and gasification systems, 163-164

  combustion turbine technology, 137-138

  conversion and catalysis, 165-166

  determinants of, 23

  direct liquefaction, 102, 103-104

  DOE budget, 160-161

  electric utility regulatory environment and, 42-43

  emission control technology, 141, 144, 145-146

  federal funding trends, 27-29, 36

  Fischer-Tropsch synthesis products, 100-102

  fluidized-bed combustion, 121-124

  gasification technologies, 86-95

  integrated gasification combined-cycle systems, 126-127

  integrated gasification fuel cell systems, 131-132

  international activities, 24-25, 156-157

  materials research, 167-172

  private sector activities, 23-24

  pulverized coal systems, 115-119

Coal-water mixtures/slurries, 79, 80, 81, 181

  in direct coal-fired heat engines, 117-118

Coalbed methane recovery, 173, 232-233

  commercial prospects, 83-94

  current programs, 82-83

  current technology, 82, 181

  opportunity for, 81-82

Coke plants, 19, 38

  coal consumption, 40, 55

  coal quality for, 40

  technological trends, 55

Commercialization

  coal cleaning technologies, 78

  coal gasification technologies, 87-88, 92-93, 109-110

  coal-liquid mixtures, 81

  coalbed methane recovery technologies, 83-84

  coproducts from coal gasification, 106-107, 111, 197-199, 202

  demonstration requirements, 151, 205

  efficiency of power generation systems and, 187, 193

  as element of Clean Coal Technology program, 14, 28, 32, 34, 205-206

  EPACT requirements, 150, 205, 209

  fluidized-bed combustion technologies, 121, 122

  hydrogen derived from coal gasification process, 96, 110, 197, 202

  integrated gasification fuel cell systems, 130

  methanol derived from coal gasification, prospects for, 98-100

  obstacles to, 150-151

  as R&D investment criterion, 195

  recommendations, 10-11, 206

  synthetic natural gas, 97, 98

Coproduction systems, 5, 11-12

  coal liquefaction and, 12-13, 200

  coal refinery concept and, 201

  cogeneration, 106-107

  commercial prospects, 111, 202

  direct liquefaction and, 108-109

  DOE R&D, 109, 111, 209

  efficiency, 197

  EPACT requirements, 209

  indirect liquefaction and, 108

  projected capacity, 44

  recommendations for, 13, 203

  regulatory environment, 43

  types of, 106

D

Demonstration projects

  advanced emission control systems, 153-154



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