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FIGURE 2-2 Recent budget trends for DOE's FE R&D programs. Sources: DOE, 1993a, 1994a.
natural gas has resulted in an emphasis on technologies for gas utilization, with the potential to use coal-derived gas. Recent years have seen the completion of R&D on power plant emissions controls to prevent acid deposition, and the initiation of new activities to achieve lower emissions of conventional air pollutants and higher power cycle efficiencies. These activities reflect a change in emphasis within the coal portion of the FE R&D program, with a decline in proof-of-concept activities and an increase in funding for demonstration programs. The current program addresses both R&D and technology demonstration.
Table 2-1 shows trends in expenditures for the three main budget categories of the FE R&D coal program: Advanced Clean Fuels, Advanced Clean/Efficient Power Systems, and Advanced Research and Technology Development (AR&TD). A major change in the FY 1994 budget was the shifting of the fuel cell program from the coal component of the FE R&D budget to the gas component. The total FE R&D coal program budget has declined by about 25 percent (almost 30 percent in real terms) since FY 1992, not including the transfer of the fuel cell activity. DOE's FY 1995 request would bring the FE coal R&D program budget (in constant dollars) to just over half what it was three years ago. However, the budget request is not necessarily a good indication of the final budget, since Congress historically has added funds that DOE did not request.
Both the Advanced Clean Fuels and Advanced Clean/Efficient Power Systems2 components of the coal program experienced funding reductions of about