market economy. The FY 1995 budget request seeks funding for international ''showcase" demonstration projects in Eastern Europe and China. However, it remains unclear whether this will receive congressional approval.
DOE's overall strategic plan (DOE, 1994b) defines the department's mission as follows:
The Department of Energy, in partnership with our customers, is entrusted to contribute to the welfare of the Nation by providing the technical information and the scientific and educational foundation for the technology, policy, and institutional leadership necessary to achieve efficiency in energy use, diversity in energy sources, a more productive and competitive economy, improved environmental quality, and a secure national defense.
The DOE plan provides a vision, goals, strategies, and success indicators for each of the department's five business areas. Under "Industrial Competitiveness," DOE's laboratory system, R&D capabilities, and core competencies in such areas as energy and environmental technologies are considered valuable resources the private sector can tap through collaborative programs. DOE work under "Energy Resources" is based on the assumption that fossil fuels will remain critical components of energy supply in every nation for the foreseeable future. In the United States, coal, natural gas, and oil will continue to provide most of the energy for electricity generation and the building, industrial, and transportation sectors. A major focus in this area is using fossil fuels more efficiently and cleanly. The business area "Science and Technology" faces the challenge resulting from the continuing industry shift away from basic research. Given constraints in federal spending, DOE must balance its long-term fundamental research against R&D that will help industry compete effectively in the near-term. Specific goals include providing the science and technology core competencies that will enable DOE's other businesses to succeed in their missions and adding value to the U.S. economy through the application of new and improved technologies. "National Security" is concerned primarily with transformation of the nuclear weapons complex, activities that are not within the scope of this report. Similarly, "Environmental Quality" addresses mainly nuclear issues, namely, the decontamination and decommissioning of weapons complex facilities and nuclear power plants.
The current DOE strategic plan generally expands on EPACT goals. EPACT will continue to provide guidance to the department in achieving its energy objectives, although, as DOE's plan notes, fulfilling EPACT's detailed requirements "will be difficult in this era of fiscal constraint."