Coal

Energy for the Future

Committee on the Strategic Assessment of the U.S. Department of Energy's Coal Program

Board on Energy and Environmental Systems

Commission on Engineering and Technical Systems

National Research Council

NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS
Washington, D.C.
1995



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--> Coal Energy for the Future Committee on the Strategic Assessment of the U.S. Department of Energy's Coal Program Board on Energy and Environmental Systems Commission on Engineering and Technical Systems National Research Council NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C. 1995

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--> NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS 2101 Constitution Ave., N.W. Washington, DC 20418 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This report has been reviewed by a group other than the authors according to procedures approved by a Report Review Committee consisting of members of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Robert M. White is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Kenneth I. Shine is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts and Dr. Robert M. White are chairman and vice chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council. This report and the study on which it is based were supported by Grant No. DE-FG22-93PC93035 from the U.S. Department of Energy. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data National Research Council (U.S.). Committee on the Strategic Assessment of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Coal Program. Coal: energy for the future / Committee on the Strategic Assessment of the U.S. Department of Energy’s coal program. p. cm. John P. Longwell, chair; Edward S. Rubin, vice-chair. Includes bibliographical references. 1. Coal—United States. 2. Coal—Government policy—United States. I. Longwell, John P. II. Rubin, Edward S. III. Title. TP326.U6N385 1995 333.8'215'0973—dc20 95-4378 CIP Copyright 1995 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America Cover photograph courtesy of NASA.

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--> COMMITTEE ON THE STRATEGIC ASSESSMENT OF THE U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY'S COAL PROGRAM* JOHN P. LONGWELL, Chair, Professor Emeritus, Department of Chemical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge EDWARD S. RUBIN, Vice-Chair, Professor, Mechanical Engineering and Public Policy, and Director, Center for Energy and Environmental Studies, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania MORREL H. COHEN, Senior Scientific Advisor, Corporate Research Science Laboratories, Exxon Research and Engineering Company, Annandale, New Jersey A. DENNY ELLERMAN, Executive Director, Center for Energy and Environmental Policy, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge ROBERT D. HALL, General Manager, Alternative Feedstock Development Department, Amoco Corporation, Naperville, Illinois JOHN W. LARSEN, Professor, Department of Chemistry, Lehigh University, Bethlehem, Pennsylvania PETER T. LUCKIE, Associate Dean for Research, College of Earth and Mineral Sciences, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park MAURICE D. McINTOSH, Vice President, Fossil/Hydro Generation, Duke Power Company, Charlotte, North Carolina GEORGE T. PRESTON, Vice President, Generation, Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, California ERIC H. REICHL, Consultant, Princeton, New Jersey LARRY D. WOODFORK, Director and State Geologist, West Virginia Geological and Economic Survey, Morgantown, West Virginia JOHN M. WOOTTEN, Vice President, Engineering and Environmental Services, Peabody Holding Company, Inc., St. Louis, Missouri Liaisons from the Board on Energy and Environmental Systems LARRY PAPAY, Vice President and Manager of Research and Development, Bechtel Group, Inc., San Francisco, California HAROLD H. SCHOBERT, Chairman, Fuel Sciences Program, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park Project Staff MAHADEVAN MANI, Director JAMES ZUCCHETTO, Senior Program Officer JILL WILSON, Study Director WENDY ORR, Project Assistant ANN COVALT, Consulting Editor *   Martha W. Gilliland, Vice Provost for Academic Affairs, University of Arizona, Tucson, served on the committee from October 1993 through April 1994.

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--> BOARD ON ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL SYSTEMS H. M. (HUB) HUBBARD, Chair, President and Chief Executive Officer, Pacific International Center for High Technology Research (PICHTR), Honolulu, Hawaii RICHARD A. MESERVE, Vice-Chair, Partner, Covington & Burling, Washington, D.C. STEPHEN D. BAN, President and Chief Executive Officer, Gas Research Institute, Chicago, Illinois ROBERT D. BANKS, Program Director, Technology and Environment, World Resources Institute, Washington, D.C. ALLEN J. BARD, Professor, Department of Chemistry, University of Texas at Austin BARBARA R. BARKOVICH, Partner, Barkovich and Yap, Consultants, San Rafael, California JAN BEYEA, Chief Scientist, National Audubon Society, New York, New York DAVID E. DANIEL, L.B. (Preach) Meaders Professor of Civil Engineering, Department of Civil Engineering, University of Texas at Austin LINDA C. DOLAN, Staff Environmental Officer, Martin Marietta, Electronics and Missiles, Orlando, Florida FRANCOIS HEUZE, Head, Geotechnical Programs, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California ROBERT L. HIRSCH, Consultant, Washington, D.C. CHARLES D. KOLSTAD, Professor, Department of Economics, University of California-Santa Barbara JANE C.S. LONG, Staff Scientist, Earth Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, Berkeley, California S. L. (CY) MEISEL, Vice President, Research (Retired), Mobil R&D Corporation, Princeton, New Jersey SHLOMO NEUMAN, Regent's Professor, Hydrology and Water Resources, University of Arizona, Tucson THOMAS D. O'ROURKE, Professor, Civil and Environmental Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York LARRY T. PAPAY, Vice President and Manager of Research and Development, Bechtel Group, Inc., San Francisco, California RUTH A. RECK, Director, Global Climate Change Program, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois MARC H. ROSS, Professor, Physics Department, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor HAROLD H. SCHOBERT, Chairman, Fuel Sciences Program, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park

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--> JOEL SPIRA, Chairman and Director of Research, Lutron Electronics Co., Inc., Coopersburg, Pennsylvania JON M. VEIGEL, President, Oak Ridge Associated Universities, Oak Ridge, Tennessee Liaisons for the Commission on Engineering and Technical Systems JOHN A. TILLINGHAST, President, Tiltec, Portsmouth, New Hampshire JOHN B. WACHTMAN, JR., Sosman Professor of Ceramics, Rutgers University, Piscataway, New Jersey Board on Energy and Environmental Systems Staff SUSANNA CLARENDON, Administrative Assistant THERON FEIST, Project Assistant HELEN JOHNSON, Administrative Associate MAHADEVAN MANI, Director AMELIA MATHIS, Project Assistant WENDY ORR, Project Assistant JILL WILSON, Program Officer TRACY WILSON, Senior Program Officer JAMES ZUCCHETTO, Senior Program Officer

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