Cox, D. K., T. M. Keevin, F. T. Norris, S. Gensler, and D. J. Schaeffer. 1993a. When is a cost "exorbitant" under NEPA? The Environmental Professional 15:145-149.

Cox, D. K., V. R. Beasley, and P. W. Andrews. 1993b. Balancing management goals for ecological systems on a sustainable basis: An analysis of the Pacific Northwest timber dispute. The George Wright Forum 10(4):76-81.

Herricks, E. E., D. J. Schaeffer, and J. A. Perry. 1988. Biomonitoring: Closing the loop in the environmental sciences. Pp. 351-366 in Environmental Biology, S. Levin, ed. New York: Springer-Verlag.

Karr, J. R. 1981. Assessment of biotic integrity using fish communities. Fisheries 6:21-27.

Khan, S. 1992. Development of practical ecosystem threshold criteria using fisheries and benthic data. M.S. Thesis. Champaign: School of Life Sciences, University of Illinois.

Leopold, A. 1949. A Sand County Almanac and Sketches Here and There. London: Oxford University Press.

Maranto, G. 1985. A once and future desert (Salinization of California farmland). Discover 6(June):32-33.

McLachlan, J. A. 1993. Functional toxicology: A new approach to detect biologically active xenobiotics. Environmental Health Perspectives 101:386-387.

McNeely, J. A. 1988. Economics and Biological Diversity: Developing and Using Economic Incentives to Conserve Biological Resources. Gland, Switzerland: International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources.

Odum, E. P. 1969. The strategy of ecosystem development. Science 164:262-270.

Poster, S. 1984. Halting land degradation. Focus 39(Spring):5-12.

Rapport, D. J., H. A. Reiger, and T. C. Hutchinson. 1985. Ecosystem behavior under stress. American Naturalist 125:617-640.

Schaeffer, D. J. 1991. A toxicological perspective on ecosystem characteristics to track sustainable development. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 22:225-239.

Schaeffer, D. J., and D. K. Cox. 1991. Approaches to establish ecosystem threshold criteria. Pp. 157-169 in Ecosystem Health: New Goals for Environmental Management, R. Costanza, B. G. Norton, and B. D. Haskell, eds. Washington, D.C.: Island Press.

Schaeffer, D. J., J. Park, H. W. Kerster, and K. G. Janardan. 1980. Sampling and the regulatory maze in the United States. Environmental Management 4:469-481.

Schaeffer, D. J., J. A. Perry, H. W. Kerster, and D. K. Cox. 1985. The environmental audit. I. Concepts. Environmental Management 9:191-198.

Schaeffer, D. J., E. E. Herricks, and H. W. Kerster. 1988. Ecosystem health. I. Measuring ecosystem health. Environmental Management 12:445-455.

Schaeffer, D. J., D. E. Leake, T. M. Keevin, and E. E. Herricks. 1992. Development of a Plan of Study (POS) to evaluate the biological risk of increased navigation traffic on the Mississippi River. The Environmental Professional 14:248-256.

Schaeffer, D. J. D. K. Cox, E. E. Herricks, and T. M. Keevin. 1993. The design of NEPA studies: Application of the study design assurance process to the Upper Mississippi River navigation impact studies. The Environmental Professional 15:89-94.

Stone, C. D. 1974. Should Trees Have Standing? Toward Legal Rights for Natural Objects. Los Altos, Calif.: William Kaufmann.

U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. 1991. Plan of Study. Navigation Effects of the Second Lock Melvin Price Locks and Dam. St. Louis, Mo.: St. Louis District Corps of Engineers.

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. 1993. Standards for the use or disposal of sewage sludge. Federal Register (13 February 1993) 58:9248-9415.

Whipple, C., ed. 1987. De Minimis Risk. New York: Plenum Press.

The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine
500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001

Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement