Biographical Data

JOHN CAIRNS, JR., is University Distinguished Professor of Environmental Biology at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University. He was curator of limnology at the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia for 18 years and has taught at various universities and field stations. He is a member of the National Academy of Sciences, a fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences and the American Association for the Advancement of Science, and a foreign member of the Linnean Society of London. He has received the Founder's Award of the Society for Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, the United Nations Environment Program Medal, and a U.S. Presidential Commendation for Environmental Activities. Cairns has served as both vice president and president of the American Microscopical Society, has served on 17 National Research Council committees, two as chair, currently serves on 14 editorial boards, and has served on the science advisory boards of the International Joint Commission (U.S. and Canada) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. The most recent of his 48 books are Restoration of Aquatic Ecosystems (committee chair), National Academy Press, 1992; Environmental Literacy and Beyond, 1993; Implementing Integrated Environmental Management, 1994; Ecological Toxicity Testing: Scale Complexity and Relevance, 1995; Rehabilitating Damaged Ecosystems, Second Edition, 1995; and Handbook of Ecotoxicology, 1995. Cairns holds a Ph.D. degree in zoology from the University of Pennsylvania.

DILWORTH W. CHAMBERLAIN is a senior consultant on environmental protection in the Environment, Health, and Safety Department at ARCO headquarters in Los Angeles, California, with more than 20 years of experience in this



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--> Biographical Data JOHN CAIRNS, JR., is University Distinguished Professor of Environmental Biology at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University. He was curator of limnology at the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia for 18 years and has taught at various universities and field stations. He is a member of the National Academy of Sciences, a fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences and the American Association for the Advancement of Science, and a foreign member of the Linnean Society of London. He has received the Founder's Award of the Society for Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, the United Nations Environment Program Medal, and a U.S. Presidential Commendation for Environmental Activities. Cairns has served as both vice president and president of the American Microscopical Society, has served on 17 National Research Council committees, two as chair, currently serves on 14 editorial boards, and has served on the science advisory boards of the International Joint Commission (U.S. and Canada) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. The most recent of his 48 books are Restoration of Aquatic Ecosystems (committee chair), National Academy Press, 1992; Environmental Literacy and Beyond, 1993; Implementing Integrated Environmental Management, 1994; Ecological Toxicity Testing: Scale Complexity and Relevance, 1995; Rehabilitating Damaged Ecosystems, Second Edition, 1995; and Handbook of Ecotoxicology, 1995. Cairns holds a Ph.D. degree in zoology from the University of Pennsylvania. DILWORTH W. CHAMBERLAIN is a senior consultant on environmental protection in the Environment, Health, and Safety Department at ARCO headquarters in Los Angeles, California, with more than 20 years of experience in this

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--> type of work. His responsibilities are to support all levels of management and operations in ARCO as a technical consultant in the areas of environmental impact assessment, oil spill response, environmental fate and effects of oil, habitat restoration, and endangered species concerns. His geographic work areas have included the continental United States, Alaska, South America, Europe, and Asia. His undergraduate degree is in zoology from California State University, Los Angeles, and he holds a Ph.D. degree in biology from the University of Southern California. He is a member of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, Sigma Xi, the Society for Ecological Restoration, and the Southern California Academy of Sciences. ROBERT COSTANZA is director of the Maryland International Institute for Ecological Economics, and professor in the Center for Environmental and Estuarine Studies at the University of Maryland. Before joining the University of Maryland, Costanza held positions at Louisiana State University and the Illinois Natural History Survey. Costanza's research has been focused on the interface between ecological and economic systems, particularly at larger temporal and spatial scales. This includes landscape level simulation modeling, analysis of energy flows, valuation of ecosystem services, and analysis of incentive systems. He is chief editor of Ecological Economics and is a member of the editorial boards of Ecological Modeling, Ecological Engineering, Trends in Ecology and Evolution, and Ecological Applications. Costanza has received numerous awards for his professional accomplishments, including the Distinguished Achievement Award from the Society for Conservation Biology. He is a member of several national panels, including the National Research Council Panel on Economics of Biodiversity. Costanza has organized and chaired several professional meetings, authored more than 170 publications, and edited three books, including Ecosystem Health: New Goals for Environmental Management, Island Press (with B. Norton and B. J. Haskell). Costanza holds a Ph.D. degree in systems ecology and environmental engineering from the University of Florida. ROBERT A. FROSCH is a senior research fellow at the John F. Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University. He recently retired from the position of vice-president in charge of General Motors Research Laboratories. Frosch's career combines varied research and administrative experience in industry and government service. He has been involved in global environmental research and policy issues at both the national and the international level. From 1951 to 1963 he was employed at the Hudson Laboratories of Columbia University, first as a research scientist and then as director from 1956 to 1963. In 1963 he became director for nuclear test detection in the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) of the Department of Defense, and deputy director of ARPA in 1965. In 1966 he was appointed assistant secretary of the Navy for research and development. He served in this position until January 1973, when he became assistant

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--> executive director of the United Nations Environment Program. In 1975 he became associate director for applied oceanography at the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, and from 1977 to 1981 he served as administrator of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. He served as president of the American Association of Engineering Societies from 1981 to 1982. Frosch is a member of the National Academy of Engineering. He holds a Ph.D. degree in theoretical physics from Columbia University. ROBERT HERMAN is L. P. Gilvin Centennial Professor, Emeritus, in Civil Engineering and sometime professor of physics at the University of Texas at Austin. Herman was previously with the General Motors Research Laboratories, where he headed the Department of Theoretical Physics and the Traffic Science Department. Herman's research has included molecular and solid-state physics, high-energy electron scattering, astrophysics and cosmology, and operations research, especially vehicular traffic science and transportation. With Ralph Alpher in 1948, Herman made the first theoretical prediction that the universe should now be filled with a cosmic microwave background radiation, which is key evidence for the validity of the Big Bang model of the origin of the universe. Awards to Herman include the 1993 Henry Draper Medal of the National Academy of Sciences, the Magellanic Premium of the American Philosophical Society (1975), and the John Price Wetherell Medal of the Franklin Institute (1980). Herman is a member of the National Academy of Engineering, the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, and Phi Beta Kappa. He holds a Ph.D. degree in physics from Princeton University. CRAWFORD (BUZZ) HOLLING occupies the Arthur R. Marshall, Jr., Chair in Ecological Sciences at the University of Florida. He worked for some years in the laboratories of the Department of the Environment, Government of Canada, emphasizing research on mathematical and experimental analysis of ecological processes, particularly predator/prey dynamics. Since then, he has been, at various times, professor and director of the Institute of Resource Ecology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada, and director of the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Vienna, Austria. His research has emphasized theoretical and applied aspects of ecological systems and processes, and ecological policy and adaptive environment assessment and management. Holling is currently performing a comparative study of the structure and dynamics of ecosystems based largely on boreal forests and the Everglades. The key scientific question is how these systems are organized across scales from centimeters to hundreds of kilometers in space and from months to millennia in time. The key policy question is how these systems might respond to global climate change. Holling is a fellow of the Royal Society of Canada and has been awarded the Austrian Cross of Honour for Arts and Science. He holds a Ph.D. degree in ecology from the University of British Columbia.

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--> JAMES R. KARR is professor of fisheries, environmental health, and public affairs at the University of Washington (Seattle). Before joining the University of Washington, Karr held faculty positions at Purdue University, the University of Illinois, and Virginia Polytechnic Institute. He has also served as deputy director and acting director of the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute. His research concentrates on areas such as tropical forest ecology, stream ecology, water quality, watershed management, conservation biology, and environmental policy. Karr has served as a consultant on water resources and development to the Organization of American States and the South Florida Water Management District. In addition, he developed the Index of Biotic Integrity, a biologically based method for evaluating the quality of water resources. That index is now widely used throughout the world. Karr holds a Ph.D. degree in zoology from the University of Illinois. JUNE LINDSTEDT-SIVA is manager of environmental protection in the corporate Environment, Health, and Safety Department at ARCO headquarters in Los Angeles. Her group advises the corporation on environmental issues, serves as consultants to management and operating companies, and participates in environmental research. Lindstedt-Siva specializes in environmental planning and management and has done extensive work on oil spills, including the impacts of oil and spill cleanup on the environment and spill response planning to minimize ecological impacts. She chaired the 1989 Oil Spill Conference, which attracted more than 1,000 attendees from 31 countries. She also chaired the American Petroleum Institute Oil Spills Advisory Group and works with the Marine Spill Response Corporation as an adviser to their R&D program. Lindstedt-Siva served on the National Science Board and the EPA Science Advisory Board panels on environmental risk reduction and bioremediation as a spill cleanup method. She serves on the National Academy of Sciences Polar Research Board. She has published many articles on oil spills and environmental planning and management, and is a fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, ASTM, and the Southern California Academy of Sciences. Lindstedt-Siva holds a Ph.D. degree in marine biology from the University of Southern California. WILLIAM J. MITSCH is professor of natural resources and environmental science and holds a joint appointment in the Department of Civil Engineering at the Ohio State University. His research and graduate teaching have focused on wetland ecology and biogeochemistry, wetland creation and restoration, and ecosystem modeling. He is founder and editor-in-chief of Ecological Engineering -The Journal of Ecotechnology . He has published some 150 papers on ecological matters and has edited or written eight books, including Wetlands, 2nd ed. (Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1993) and Global Wetlands - Old World and New (Elsevier, 1994). Mitsch is a frequent adviser to state and federal governments on wetlands

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--> and has served on both the U.S. National Committee for the Scientific Committee on Problems of the Environment (SCOPE) and the Wetland Characterization Committee of the National Research Council. He currently is president-elect of the Society of Wetland Scientists and chairs a SCOPE Project on Ecological Engineering and Ecosystem Restoration. He is certified as a senior ecologist by the Ecological Society of America and as a professional wetland scientist by the Society of Wetland Scientists. Mitsch received his Ph.D. degree in environmental engineering sciences from the University of Florida. BRYAN G. NORTON is professor of philosophy of science and technology in the School of Public Policy, Georgia Institute of Technology. He writes on intergenerational equity and sustainability theory, with special emphasis on biodiversity and ecosystem characteristics. His current research includes work on methods of evaluation for intergenerational impacts (sponsored by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency [EPA]). He is author of Toward Unity Among Environmentalists (Oxford University Press, 1991) and coeditor of Ecosystem Health: New Goals for Environmental Management (Island Press, 1992). He is especially interested in developing physical, ecosystem-level measures of health/ illness and relating these to human welfare. Norton has served on numerous panels, including the Ecosystem Valuation Forum, the Risk Assessment Forum (EPA), and the Environmental Economics Advisory Committee of the EPA Science Advisory Board. He is a fellow of the Hastings Center. Norton holds a Ph.D. degree in philosophy from the University of Michigan. PAUL G. RISSER is president of Miami University, Oxford, Ohio. His research interests include the study of the structure and function of grassland and forest ecosystems, environmental planning and management, and landscape ecology and global change; he has published extensively. Risser currently chairs the National Research Council Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology and has served on a variety of committees of the National Research Council. He is past president of both the American Institute of Biological Sciences and the Ecological Society of America and is currently the secretary general of the international Scientific Committee on Problems of the Environment. Risser holds a Ph.D. degree in botany and soils from the University of Wisconsin. DAVID J. SCHAEFFER is associate professor in the Department of Veterinary Biosciences at the University of Illinois. Before joining the University of Illinois, Schaeffer served for 12 years as science adviser and chief of toxicology and statistics at the Illinois Environmental Protection Agency. Schaeffer's interests are in toxicology, statistical modeling, bioassay development, and theoretical and conceptual aspects of ecosystem ''health.'' He has published numerous papers on these topics. Schaeffer holds a Ph.D. degree in organic chemistry from the City University of New York.

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--> PETER C. SCHULZE is assistant professor of biology, Austin College, Sherman, Texas. Before joining the faculty of Austin College, Schulze held a research postdoctoral appointment at Lehigh University and taught at Dartmouth College and Harvard University. Most recently he was the 1993-1994 J. Herbert Hollomon Fellow of the National Academy of Engineering. Schulze's primary interests are the ecology of freshwaters and human environmental impacts. Schulze holds a Ph.D. degree in biology from Dartmouth College and has been recognized by Harvard University for distinction in teaching. HSIEH WEN SHEN is professor of civil engineering at the University of California, Berkeley. He was previously Professor in Charge of the Hydrology and Water Resources Program at Colorado State University. A primary research effort by Shen is devoted to developing systems for releasing water from reservoirs that satisfy ecological requirements of downstream biological communities. A present focus of this research is the Kissimmee River of Florida. Shen has advised the World Bank, the Inter-American Development Bank, and the Governments of Argentina, Brazil, China, Colombia, the Dominican Republic, Egypt, Honduras, Jamaica, New Zealand, Pakistan, Venezuela, and others. He received the Joan Hodges Queneau Award for outstanding engineering achievement in Environmental Conservation from the National Audubon Society and the American Association of Engineering Societies, the H. A. Einstein Award for significant contributions to waterway management from the American Society of Civil Engineers, the Horton Award from the American Geophysical Union for significant contribution to hydrology, and a variety of other awards and recognitions. He is a member of the National Academy of Engineering. Shen holds a Ph.D. degree in civil engineering from the University of California, Berkeley. LOU C. SOILEAU IV is development manager, ARCO Oriente Inc. Soileau is responsible for the planning and execution of the Villano Field development program as well as for the overall management of ARCO's activities in Ecuador. He is a registered professional petroleum engineer with more than 23 years of experience throughout the United States and the North Sea. Soileau has helped ARCO reduce costs and increase operating and hydrocarbon recovery efficiency through the application of innovative concepts, including unmanned remote offshore platforms, enhanced oil recovery methods, and nearshore oil field development using long-reach directional drilling, and subsea gas field development. He is a member of the Society of Petroleum Engineers and a graduate of Louisiana State University. PETER E. VON HAAM works in the Bay/Delta Branch of the Metropolitan Water District of Southern California. He previously served on the staff of the California Legislature, Assembly Committee on Water, Parks, and Wildlife. Von Haam holds a bachelor's degree from the University of California, Berkeley, in

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--> political economy of natural resources and a law degree from the University of Washington (Seattle). He has been admitted to the California State Bar. JOHN R. WODRASKA is general manager of the Metropolitan Water District of Southern California, which provides water to nearly 16 million residents. Before that, Wodraska served as executive director of the South Florida Water Management District, where he was closely involved with the Everglades controversy. He holds a bachelor's degree from Wilkes College in Pennsylvania in business and finance, and a master's degree in geography from Columbia University. MARTIN L. WOUCH is senior environmental engineer in the Environment, Health, and Safety section at ARCO International Oil and Gas Company in Plano, Texas. He is responsible for developing and implementing environmental protection and compliance programs for ARCO's international oil and gas subsidiaries. He has been involved both in the planning and in the field for the ARCO project in Ecuador. His undergraduate degree is in earth science (geological concentration) from Pennsylvania State University, and he holds a master's degree in environmental engineering from Louisiana State University. He is also a registered professional engineer in the state of Louisiana. ALBERT H. WURTH, JR., is associate professor of government, Lehigh University. His field of interest is public policy and political economy, with a focus on politics of the environment, technology, and information. He has published numerous articles in these fields. His present focus is on recycling and waste reduction. Wurth holds a Ph.D. degree in political science from the University of North Carolina.

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