type of work. His responsibilities are to support all levels of management and operations in ARCO as a technical consultant in the areas of environmental impact assessment, oil spill response, environmental fate and effects of oil, habitat restoration, and endangered species concerns. His geographic work areas have included the continental United States, Alaska, South America, Europe, and Asia. His undergraduate degree is in zoology from California State University, Los Angeles, and he holds a Ph.D. degree in biology from the University of Southern California. He is a member of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, Sigma Xi, the Society for Ecological Restoration, and the Southern California Academy of Sciences.

ROBERT COSTANZA is director of the Maryland International Institute for Ecological Economics, and professor in the Center for Environmental and Estuarine Studies at the University of Maryland. Before joining the University of Maryland, Costanza held positions at Louisiana State University and the Illinois Natural History Survey. Costanza's research has been focused on the interface between ecological and economic systems, particularly at larger temporal and spatial scales. This includes landscape level simulation modeling, analysis of energy flows, valuation of ecosystem services, and analysis of incentive systems. He is chief editor of Ecological Economics and is a member of the editorial boards of Ecological Modeling, Ecological Engineering, Trends in Ecology and Evolution, and Ecological Applications. Costanza has received numerous awards for his professional accomplishments, including the Distinguished Achievement Award from the Society for Conservation Biology. He is a member of several national panels, including the National Research Council Panel on Economics of Biodiversity. Costanza has organized and chaired several professional meetings, authored more than 170 publications, and edited three books, including Ecosystem Health: New Goals for Environmental Management, Island Press (with B. Norton and B. J. Haskell). Costanza holds a Ph.D. degree in systems ecology and environmental engineering from the University of Florida.

ROBERT A. FROSCH is a senior research fellow at the John F. Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University. He recently retired from the position of vice-president in charge of General Motors Research Laboratories. Frosch's career combines varied research and administrative experience in industry and government service. He has been involved in global environmental research and policy issues at both the national and the international level. From 1951 to 1963 he was employed at the Hudson Laboratories of Columbia University, first as a research scientist and then as director from 1956 to 1963. In 1963 he became director for nuclear test detection in the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) of the Department of Defense, and deputy director of ARPA in 1965. In 1966 he was appointed assistant secretary of the Navy for research and development. He served in this position until January 1973, when he became assistant



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