Richards, 1994; Richards and Fullerton, 1994). A core societal vision should be integrating all these initiatives to protect ecological integrity (Karr, 1993; Westra, 1994) and ecological health (Costanza et al., 1992; Rapport et al., 1994). Ecologists and engineers alike must become more aware of the need to protect biological systems as integral components of human welfare; ecologists as well as engineers must better understand and respond to societal needs. Failure to do so holds ominous consequences.

Growing Environmental Concerns

For most of the twentieth century, the most visible demonstration of public concern for the environment was the conservation movement in the developed world. But voices now coming from all corners of society draw attention to the severity of present ecological crises. A Health of the Planet Survey by the Gallup Organization (Dunlap et al., 1993) asked more than 28,000 individuals in 24 countries (including industrialized and developing nations) about their environmental attitudes. The results show "strong public concern for environmental protection throughout the world, including regions where it was assumed to be absent."

Scholars too are calling for shifts in human behavior. A worldwide collection of 1,575 scientists, including 99 Nobel Prize winners, noted that "human beings and the natural world are on a collision course.... A great change in our stewardship of the earth, and life on it, is required if vast human misery is to be avoided and our global home on this planet is not to be irretrievably mutilated" (Union of Concerned Scientists, 1992). In the same year, the National Academy of Sciences and the Royal Society of London (1992) issued a joint statement recognizing the need for industrial countries to modify their behavior radically to avoid irreversible damage to the earth's capacity to sustain life. A 1993 Population Summit held in New Delhi explored issues of population growth, resource consumption, socioeconomic development, and environmental protection; 58 of the world's national academies of sciences (Science Summit, 1993) called for action to turn 1994 into "the year when the people of the world decided to act together for the benefit of future generations." The Ecological Society of America (Lubchenco et al., 1991) and the International Association of Ecology (Huntley et al., 1991) called for research initiatives to move society toward sustainable use of ecological resources; so have Sigma Xi (1992) and the Carnegie Commission (1992a,b,c; 1993).

Universities and governments have also joined the chorus. In the 1990 Talloires Declaration (Cortese, 1993), the leaders of hundreds of universities from throughout the world expressed their deep concern "about the unprecedented scale and speed of environmental pollution and degradation, and the depletion of natural resources." The 1992 Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro was an unprecedented gathering of representatives from 170 nations (the largest meeting ever



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