TABLE 1-1 —Functions of Product and Process Standards

CATEGORY

FOR EXAMPLE…

1. COMMERCIAL COMMUNICATION

Standards convey information about a product to the buyer in a consistent, understandable manner.

(a) construction materials—standard dimensions, strengths, and durabilities make it easier for the builder to select materials for specific purposes

(b) film speed—standard ratings (ISO 100, 200, 400, etc.) simplify matching film to photographic needs

2. TECHNOLOGY DIFFUSION

A technological advance incorporated into a standard is more readily adapted and used by others.

(a) personal computer architecture—use of PCs expanded rapidly once IBM-compatibility standard came into being

(b) advanced materials (e.g., composites, ceramics)—standards that describe processing and test methods allow duplication and improvement upon state of the art

3. PRODUCTION EFFICIENCY

Standardization of parts, processes and products enables economies of scale in production.

(a) automobile assembly line—efficient mass production pioneered with the Ford Model T

(b) fast food chains (e.g., McDonald's)—food, restaurant style, equipment, and procedures standardized for efficiency



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