NVLAP, National Voluntary Laboratory Accreditation Program, 1994 Directory, U.S. Department of Commerce, Technology Administration, National Institute of Standards and Technology, and American Association for Laboratory Accreditation, A2LA 1994 Directory of Accredited Laboratories.


Clinton, Report to the Congress on Recommendations on Future Free Trade Area Negotiations.




For an overview of possible directions for the APEC forum, including issues of trade facilitation, see Gary Clyde Hufbauer, Whither APEC?


Achieving the APEC Vision; Free and Open Trade in the Asia Pacific, Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation.


APEC Economic Leader's Declaration of Common Resolve, Bogor, Indonesia, November 15, 1994.


Proposed Declaration on an APEC Standards and Conformance Framework: Submitted by Australia, APEC Committee on Trade and Investment.


U.S. International Trade Commission, Development Assistance in East Asia, p. 98-99.




This section draws, in part, on information presented in interviews conducted with U.S. government officials, affiliates of the U.S. Chamber of Commerce in Jakarta, Indonesia, and representatives of the Indonesian government, including the Dewan Standardisasi Nasional (DSN), Standardization Council of Indonesia, in Jakarta, Indonesia, in August 1994. Personal communications with John Wilson, project director.


For an overview of recent trade reforms in East Asia, including Indonesia, see: Development in Practice, East Asia's Trade and Investment, Regional and Global Gains from Liberalization, The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development.


DSN operates under authority of a Presidential Decree of 1984, revised in 1989 to establish Indonesian national standards (Standard Nasional Indonesia, SNI). DSN is the coordinating body through which all standards and metrology organizations establish standards in Indonesia. It works with 2,000 experts from industry and government.

The DSN represents Indonesia as the government members body of the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) and represents Indonesia in Codex Alimentarius Commission (CAC). Pusat Standardisasi LIPI operates as the Secretariat of the DSN. It manages Indonesian participation in the activities of ISO and IEC. Technical committees employ experts from government, private institutions, industry, and professional associations.


Information on the U.S.-Saudi Standards Cooperation Program provided by Gilbert Dwyer, American-Saudi Roundtable, and Edward Wunder, NIST representative to SASO, fact sheets and personal communication, May 16, 1994.


For example, an independent advisory panel of industry and academic experts reviewed this program in 1993 and recommended that NIST's proposal to expand it be fully funded. See Visiting Committee on Advanced Technology of the National Institute of Standards and Technology, International Standards Issues: A Statement to the Secretary of Commerce, p. 4-6.


American-Saudi Roundtable, U.S.-Saudi Arabia Standards Cooperation Program, progress report dated December 31, 1993.


Memorandum by Gilbert Dwyer, American-Saudi Roundtable, U.S.-Saudi Arabia Standards Cooperation Program: Critical Success Factors, March 21, 1994. For an additional example of private standards setting firms assisting in other countries see: Letter of Intent between NSF and The Instituto Mexicano de Tecnologia del Agua, in which the NSF agreed to share through training its expertise and experience in product certification with the ultimate goal of mutual recognition.


U.S. Congress. House. Department of Commerce Appropriations Act, 1995.

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