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--> Appendix D Glossary and Acronyms Glossary STANDARDS Standard A prescribed set of conditions or requirements concerning definitions of terms; specification of performance, operation, or construction; delineation of procedures; or measurement of quantity and/or quality in describing features of products, processes, systems, interfaces, or materials. Compatibility Standard A standard that defines the interface between components of a system or network, allowing them to function or communicate with one another. De Facto Standard A standard arising from uncoordinated processes in the competitive marketplace. When a particular set of product or process specifications gains market share such that it acquires authority or influence, that set of specifications is then considered a de facto standard. Design Standard A standard that defines a product's characteristics in terms of how it is to be constructed.
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--> Mandatory Standard A standard set by government. A procurement standard specifies requirements that must be met by suppliers to government. A regulatory standard may set safety, health, environmental, or related criteria. Voluntary standards developed for private use often become mandatory when referenced within government regulation or procurement. Performance Standard A standard that defines a product's characteristics in terms of how it is to function. Because this type of standard leaves open to the designer the issue of how the product achieves the desired functionality, performance standards are considered less restrictive of innovation than design standards. Voluntary Consensus Standard A standard arising from a formal, coordinated process in which key participants in a market seek consensus. Use of the resulting standard is voluntary. Key participants may include not only designers and producers, but also consumers, corporate and government purchasing officials, and regulatory authorities. CONFORMITY ASSESSMENT Conformity Assessment The determination of whether a product or process conforms to particular standards or specifications. Activities associated with conformity assessment may include testing, certification, accreditation, and quality assurance system registration. Accreditation The process of evaluating testing facilities for competence to perform specific tests using standard test methods. The test methods for which a facility seeks accreditation may or may not be associated with a particular certification program. Certification The process of providing assurance that a product or service conforms to one or more standards or specifications. Some, but not all, certification programs require that an accredited laboratory perform any required testing.
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--> Certification Mark A sign or symbol that is used exclusively by the operator of a third-party certification program to identify products or services as being certified. In the United States, certification marks are registered with the U.S. Patent Office. A well-known example is the Underwriters Laboratories' "UL" mark. Manufacturer's Declaration of Conformity A form of certification in which a manufacturer or supplier declares that his or her product meets one or more standards based on (1) confidence in the manufacturer's own quality assurance program, and/or (2) the results of testing the manufacturer performs or has performed on his or her behalf. Mutual Recognition Agreement Agreement between conformity assessment entities to accept some or all aspects of one another's work. Both public- and private-sector parties may be involved. New Approach Directives Directives produced by the Commission of the European Union specifying "essential requirements" for safety that regulated goods must meet in order to be placed on the market anywhere within the European Union. Producers may demonstrate conformity to the directives via a choice among eight Commission-specified assessment modules, three of which involve quality system registration to portions of the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 9000 series. As of 1994, new approach directives exist for toys, simple pressure vessels, construction products, electromagnetic compatibility, gas appliances, personal protective equipment, machinery, weighing instruments, certain medical devices, and telecommunications terminal equipment. Recognition The process of evaluation and designation, by a government entity, that an accreditation program is competent to carry out its activities. Third-Party Certification A form of certification in which the producer's claim of conformity is validated in a third-party certification program by a competent body other than one controlled by the producer.
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--> QUALITY ASSURANCE Quality Assurance The procedures and resources a manufacturer uses to control variables in product design, production, and handling in order to produce a product of consistent quality that meets defined specifications or standards. Environmental Management System The procedures and resources an organization uses to implement its policies regarding the impact of its activities, products, and services on the environment. ISO 9000 Standard Series A series of five international standards for quality assurance management systems (ISO 9000, 9001, 9002, 9003, and 9004) published in 1987 by the International Organization for Standardization and revised in 1994. The standards are being applied worldwide in an increasingly broad range of circumstances, including government regulations and public- and private-sector purchasing specifications. Quality System Registration Assessment and periodic audit of the adequacy of a producer's quality assurance system by a third party known as a quality system registrar. ISO 9000 quality system registration, for example, certifies that a producer's system conforms to the registrar's interpretation of one or more of the ISO 9000 standards; interpretations may vary among registrars. Acronyms A2LA American Association for Laboratory Accreditation AAMI Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation ACIL American Council of Independent Laboratories AFNOR Association Francaise de Normalisation (French Standardization Association) AGA American Gas Association ANSI American National Standards Institute APEC Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation Council ASC-T1 Accredited Standards Committee T1—Telecommunications ASME American Society of Mechanical Engineers ASQC American Society for Quality Control ASTM American Society for Testing and Materials
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--> ATIS Alliance for Telecommunications Industry Solutions (formerly, the Exchange Carriers Standards Association, ECSA) ATP Advanced Technology Program, NIST BSI British Standards Institution CASCO ISO Council Committee on Conformity Assessment CBEMA Computer and Business Equipment Manufacturers Association CCITT ITU International Telephone and Telegraph Consultative Committee (recently reorganized as the ITU Telecommunication Standardization Sector, ITU-T) CEN European Committee for Standardization CENELEC European Committee for Electrotechnical Standardization CNAEL Committee on National Accreditation of Environmental Laboratories COPANT Pan American Standards Commission COS Corporation for Open Systems CPSC U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission CSA Canadian Standards Association DIN Deutsches Institut fur Normung (German Institute for Standardization) DoC U.S. Department of Commerce DoD U.S. Department of Defense DSN Dewan Standardisasi Nasional (National Standardization Council of Indonesia) EFTA European Free Trade Association EOTC European Organization for Testing and Certification EPA U.S. Environmental Protection Agency ETSI European Telecommunications Standards Institute EU European Union (formerly, the European Community) FCC Federal Communications Commission FDA U.S. Food and Drug Administration FY fiscal year GAMA Gas Appliance Manufacturers Association GATT General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade GDP gross domestic product GSA U.S. General Services Administration ICSP Interagency Committee on Standards Policy
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--> IEC International Electrotechnical Commission IEEE Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers IFAC Industry Functional Advisory Committee, U.S. Department of Commerce IIE Institute for International Economics IPR intellectual property rights ISAC Industry Sectoral Advisory Committee, U.S. Department of Commerce ISO International Organization for Standardization IT information technology ITA International Trade Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce ITU International Telecommunication Union, United Nations ITU-T ITU Telecommunication Standardization Sector JISC Japan Industrial Standards Committee JSA Japan Standards Association JTC1 ISO/IEC Joint Technical Committee 1—Information Technology MAP Manufacturing Automation Protocol MBNQA Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award MITI Japanese Ministry for International Trade and Industry MOU memorandum of understanding MRA mutual recognition agreement NADCAP National Aerospace and Defense Contractors Accreditation Program NAFTA North American Free Trade Agreement NAM National Association of Manufacturers NAVFAC Naval Facilities Engineering Command NCASR National Conformity Assessment System Recognition Program (proposed) NCSCI National Center for Standards and Certification Information, NIST NCWM National Conference on Weights and Measures NEMA National Electrical Manufacturers Association NFPA National Fire Protection Association NHTSA National Highway and Traffic Safety Administration NIST National Institute of Standards and Technology, U.S. Department of Commerce NRTL Nationally Recognized Testing Laboratory Program, OSHA NSSN National Standards Systems Network NTB nontariff trade barrier
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--> NTE National Trade Estimate NVCASE National Voluntary Conformity Assessment Systems Evaluation Program, NIST NVLAP National Voluntary Laboratory Accreditation Program, NIST OMB Office of Management and Budget, Executive Office of the President, U.S. OSHA Occupational Safety and Health Administration OSI Open Systems Interconnection PASC Pacific Area Standards Congress PAT Process Action Team on Military Specifications and Standards, U.S. Department of Defense QML Qualified Manufacturers List QPL Qualified Product List R&D research and development RAB Registrar Accreditation Board RVC Raad voor de Certificatie (Dutch Council for Certification) SAE Society of Automotive Engineers SASO Saudi Arabian Standards Organization SCC Standards Council of Canada SCI Standards Code and Information Program, NIST SDO standards developing organization SPS sanitary and phytosanitary TAG technical advisory group TBT technical barrier to trade TC technical committee TQM total quality management UL Underwriters Laboratories, Inc. US&FCS U. S. and Foreign Commercial Service, U.S. Department of Commerce USDA U.S. Department of Agriculture USNC U.S. National Committee of the IEC USNRC U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission USTR United States Trade Representative, Executive Office of the President WTO World Trade Organization
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Representative terms from entire chapter: