See Hemenway, Industry-Wide Voluntary Product Standards, 21-26; and Kindleberger, Standards as Public, Collective and Private Goods, 384-388.


For a discussion of the effects of standardization on market efficiency under various conditions, see Farrell and Saloner, Competition, Compatibility and Standards: the Economics of Horses, Penguins ans Lemmings.


OTA, Global Standards, 42.


Joseph Farrell and Garth Saloner, Standardization and Variety, 71.


A great deal of literature exists on the changing nature of manufacturing efficiency. See, for example, National Academy of Engineering, Mastering a New Role: Shaping Technology Policy for National Economic Performance, 28-39.


Paul A. David, Some New Standards for the Economics of Standardization in the Information Age, 217.


Computer Science and Telecommunications Board, National Research Council, Realizing the Information Future: The Internet and Beyond, 17-26.


For a partial listing of federal certification programs and their methodologies—including facility inspection—see Maureen Breitenberg, ed., Directory of Federal Government Certification Programs.


Breitenberg, ed., Directory of International and Regional Organizations Conducting Standards-Related Activities, 274-275.


Breitenberg, More Questions and Answers on ISO 9000; Curt W. Reimann and Harry S. Hertz, The Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award and ISO 9000 Registration, 42-53.


NSF International Corporate Brochure, Drinking Water Additives Program.


See International Organization for Standardization (ISO), Certification and Related Activities for a detailed overview of types of conformity assessment activities and the costs and benefits, in qualitative terms, of each type.


ISO, Certification and Related Activities, 22.


Ross Cheit, Setting Safety Standards: Regulation in the Public and Private Sectors, 28; and Underwriters Laboratories (UL), An Overview of Underwriters Laboratories, brochure.


Rober B. Toth, ed., Standards Activities of Organizations in the United States, 4.


In the academic economics literature, there has been more analytical attention paid to free-market, de facto standardization processes than to coordinated, voluntary consensus processes. For an overview of the economics of de facto and consensus standard-setting, see Shane M. Greenstein, Invisible Hands and Visible Advisors: An Economic Interpretation of Standardization, 538-549.


For an overview of these effects, see Farrell and Saloner, Competition, Compatibility and Standards.


Office of the Chief Economist, Office of the U.S. Trade Representative, U.S. Exports Create High-Wage Employmenti.


Office of the U.S. Trade Representative, Uruguay Round: Final Texts of the GATT Uruguay Round Agreements.

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