Index

A

Accredition

  ANSI role, 4, 35, 40, 60-61, 159-160

  in conformity assessment system, 17, 68, 80

  of consortia-developed standards, 39

  criteria, 81

  definition, 80, 206

  European Union-U.S. negotiations, 132-133

  government recognition, 81, 97-99

  industry cooperation in, 81

  international trends, 118

  for ISO 9000 quality system registrars, 81

  laboratory, 51, 54, 80-87, 96, 118-119, 132-133

  National Conformity Assessment System Recognition for, 2-3, 155, 156

  number of programs, 81

  professional certification, 28

  recommendations, 2-3, 4, 155-157, 159-160

  role of, 80-81

  standardization of criteria, 3, 5, 156-157

  system redundancy, 87, 96-97, 154

Agriculture, Department of, 16, 51, 76, 122-123

American Association for Laboratory Accreditation, 87

American Council of Independent Laboratories, 72, 74

American Dental Association, 75

American Gas Association, 36, 70, 74

American National Standards Institute, 73

  evolution, 39

  finances, 39, 49, 64 n.107

  government members, 60, 159

  government relations, 45-46

  international activities, 46, 119, 178

  membership, 39

  in public-private standardization effort, 59-60

  publishing activity, 40-44

  recommendations for, 4, 159-160

  role of, 23-24, 35, 39, 40, 60-61, 179

  standards development procedures, 33-34, 45

  structure, 39-40

American Society for Testing and Materials, 34, 38, 47, 55-56, 96

American Society of Mechanical Engineers, 28, 29, 37, 47, 75



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--> Index A Accredition   ANSI role, 4, 35, 40, 60-61, 159-160   in conformity assessment system, 17, 68, 80   of consortia-developed standards, 39   criteria, 81   definition, 80, 206   European Union-U.S. negotiations, 132-133   government recognition, 81, 97-99   industry cooperation in, 81   international trends, 118   for ISO 9000 quality system registrars, 81   laboratory, 51, 54, 80-87, 96, 118-119, 132-133   National Conformity Assessment System Recognition for, 2-3, 155, 156   number of programs, 81   professional certification, 28   recommendations, 2-3, 4, 155-157, 159-160   role of, 80-81   standardization of criteria, 3, 5, 156-157   system redundancy, 87, 96-97, 154 Agriculture, Department of, 16, 51, 76, 122-123 American Association for Laboratory Accreditation, 87 American Council of Independent Laboratories, 72, 74 American Dental Association, 75 American Gas Association, 36, 70, 74 American National Standards Institute, 73   evolution, 39   finances, 39, 49, 64 n.107   government members, 60, 159   government relations, 45-46   international activities, 46, 119, 178   membership, 39   in public-private standardization effort, 59-60   publishing activity, 40-44   recommendations for, 4, 159-160   role of, 23-24, 35, 39, 40, 60-61, 179   standards development procedures, 33-34, 45   structure, 39-40 American Society for Testing and Materials, 34, 38, 47, 55-56, 96 American Society of Mechanical Engineers, 28, 29, 37, 47, 75

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--> American Society of Mechanical Engineers v. Hydrolevel Corporation , 35 Anticipatory standards, 44 Antitrust law, 35 Asbestos testing, 87 Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation Forum   importance of, 117   mutual recognition agreements, 134-140, 147, 161   recommendations for, 5, 161   trade opportunities, 4-5 Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation, 38, 47 Audit of production, 16 Automotive industry, 10, 32   certification in, 76   international standards development, 145, 146   mass production, 14, 15, 30 B Bandwagon effects, 32, 44-45 Battery sizes, 11 Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, 28, 29, 37, 74-75 Building codes, 16, 39, 51, 75 Building Officials and Code Administrators International, 75 C Canvass method, 42-44 Certification   in conformity assessment system, 17, 66   definition, 66, 206   European Union-U.S. agreements, 130-132   function, 72-73   government programs, 51, 75-77   intensity of, 73   international harmonization, 106, 118-119   opportunities for improvement, 76-77   organizations for, 36   private-sector programs, 73-75   revenue, 73   testing and, 73-74 Certification mark, 17, 73, 207 Commerce, Department of, 10, 16, 51, 123 Commercial transactions   differentiation vs. standardization, 15   quality system registration in, 77   role of conformity assessment, 17, 66, 68-70   role of standards, 11, 14-15, 19 Communications and information technology industry, 31-32, 181-183   challenges to consensus standardization, 44-45   federal standards development, 51   international standardization, 46, 47   role of compatibility standards, 15, 18 Compatibility standards, 18   challenges to development, 44-45   definition, 205   incentives for adoption, 15, 31-32 Competition   in development of de facto standards, 24, 31-32   global, 1-2   standards development and, 14-15 Computer and Business Equipment Manufacturers Association, 34, 37-38 Conformity assessment   accreditation services in, 17, 68, 80   Asian-U.S. mutual recognition, 137-140   certification system, 72-77   current status, 2, 99, 153-154   definition, 17, 65, 206   elements of, 17-18, 66, 154   European Union mechanisms, 129-130   evolution of U.S. system, 65-66   framework, 68-70   independent laboratory testing services in, 71-72   international trade and, 106   as international trade barrier, 109-111, 120-121   international trends, 118-119

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-->   NIST role, 54   ongoing review, 6-7, 163-164   private-sector organizations for, 2-3, 70, 155   quality system registration in, 17, 77, 78, 80   recognition in, 97-99   recommendations, 2-3, 154-157   role of, 17, 66   state government role in, 51   third-party, 69-70, 155   trade barriers in U.S. system, 133-134   See also Mutual recognition agreements;   Standards and conformity assessment system Construction materials standards, 75 Corporation for Open Systems, 39 Cost savings   as benefit of standards, 11, 14, 30   conformity assessment reform for, 154, 155   in consensus standards development process, 33   in coordination of accreditation activities, 96-97   in coordination of certification programs, 76-77   estimating role of standards in, 19   in federal standards development, 55   in federal use of consensus standards, 55-56   as goal of government standards, 20   in quality system registration programs, 78, 79 D Data gathering and analysis   government certification programs, 76   independent laboratory testing trends, 71-72   international trade practices, 109-111, 147   NIST activity, 6-7, 54, 163   OMB circular A-119 reporting requirements, 57   recommendations for, 6-7, 163-164 De facto standards   competition and, 24, 31   definition, 19, 24, 29, 61, 205 Defense, Department of   number of standards, 19, 26, 49   procurement standards, 55, 176-177   Qualified Manufacturers List, 78-79   Qualified Products List, 76   quality system registration, 78-79, 80   trends in standard development, 26, 57 Deming, W. Edwards, 16, 77 Documentation   international assistance programs, 146-147   quality assurance, 78 Drinking water quality, 74 Due process, 35, 44, 45 E Economies of scale, 14, 15, 30, 105, 106 Employment rate, international trade and, 20, 105 Engineering services, 72 Environmental Protection Agency, 49-51, 96 Environmental standards, 10, 16-17, 208   conformity assessment framework for, 69   government certification programs, 76   international efforts, 164 ETL Testing Laboratories, 74 European Commission for Electrotechnical Standardization, 127-129 European Commission for Standardization, 127-129 European Telecommunications Standards Institute, 127-129 European Union   mutual recognition agreement negotiations, 130-134, 147, 160-161   quality system registration trends, 77, 80   recommendations, 5, 161   standards and conformity assessment mechanisms, 32, 127-130, 171-172, 175-176

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-->   trade barriers in, 4, 107, 109, 111-112, 118, 126-127, 130, 160   U.S. export volume, 111, 126 F Factory Mutual Research Corporation, 74 Fastener Quality Act, 97, 98, 156 Federal Aviation Administration, 76 Federal Communications Commission, 51, 57, 87 Federal government   accreditation programs, 81   ANSI and, 4, 45-46, 159-160   certification programs, 75-77   conformity assessment role, 155, 177-181   consumption of testing services, 72   in European standards development, 32   export promotion activities, 140   funding for voluntary standards organizations, 60   international trade policymaking apparatus, 121-124   mandatory standards, 25, 48   multiple accreditations, 87, 96   number of standards in, 19, 26, 27   obsolete standards, 29   process standards enforcement, 16   protection of public welfare, 16   public-private cooperation for standards development, 57-60, 61, 157-159   quality system registration, 78-80   recognition of accreditation services, 97-99   role of standards in, 20   sources of standards in, 26, 49-51   standards development process, 55   standards development trends, 57   use of private-sector standards, 25, 48-49, 54-57, 157-158   See also Regulatory control Federal Trade Commission, 68 Fire fighting technology, 30, 38-39 Food and Drug Administration, 179-180 Food products   barriers to international trade, 109   safety, 76 Ford, Henry, 14, 15 France, 32 G GATT. See General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade   accomplishments of, 103, 107   compliance in developing countries, 141   conformity assessment agreements, 118-119   coverage of nongovernmental organizations, 119-120   dispute resolution, 109, 120-121, 172-173   recommendations for, 6, 7, 162, 164   responsibilities of signatories, 54   scope and coverage, 113, 117-118   trade barrier agreements, 107, 171, 172   Uruguay Round Agreements, 4, 20-21, 112-113, 160   U.S. policy goals, 21, 147-148   U.S. representation, 122 General Services Administration, 49, 80 Germany, 32 Great Britain, 32 Growth hormone regulation, 109 H Health and safety standards   conformity assessment framework for, 69-70   drinking water treatment, 74   government certification programs, 76   government production, 49   historical development, 29-30   role of, 10, 16   role of government, 20   voluntary consensus development, 56-57 Health care industry, 38   international standardization, 47, 179-180

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--> I IBM Corporation, 24, 32, 79 Indonesia, 141-144 Industry standards, 24 Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, 34, 36, 40 Interagency Committee on Standards Policy, 53, 57, 158 International Conference of Building Officials, 75 International Electrotechnical Commission, 36, 45, 46-47, 48 International Organization for Standardization, 45   9000 quality system standards, 10, 16, 54, 57, 77-80, 81, 143, 164   role of, 48   Technical Committee 207, 80   testing services, 72   U.S. participation, 46-47, 54 International standardization   benefits of, 106   conformity assessment acceptance, 97-98   GATT agreements, 112-113, 117-118   organizations for, 46   process, 46   public-private cooperation for, 60, 179-180   quality system registration, 77-78, 80   recognition of nongovernmental organizations, 119-120, 173   technical assistance for, 5-6, 21, 104, 141, 143-147, 162   U.S. participation in, 46-47, 170-171   U.S. policy goals, 103-104 International Telecommunications Union, 46, 49 International trade   barriers in U.S. export markets, 108-112   benefits, 169-171   cost of trade barriers, 107-108   dispute resolution mechanisms, 120-121   GATT agreements, 112-113, 117-121   Indonesian policy development, 141-144   intellectual property rights and, 151 n.57   mutual recognition agreements in, 126   ongoing analytical activities, 6-7, 163-164   recommendations, 4-6, 160-162   regulatory trends, 103, 107   retaliatory actions, 5, 124-125, 161   role of standards and conformity assessment in, 1-2, 18, 20, 47, 105, 106   Section 301 provisions, 124-125, 148   standards and conformity assessment as barriers to, 108, 120-121, 171-174   trends, 147, 174-175   U.S. competitiveness in, 1-2   U.S. domestic economy and, 20, 103, 104-105, 160   U.S. export promotion, 140-141   U.S. policy formation process, 121-124   U.S. policy goals, 103-104, 112, 147-148, 160   wage rates and, 170   See also General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade Internet, 15 ISO. See International Organization for Standardization ISONET, 54 J Japan, 125 Joint Technical Committee on Information Technology, 36, 45 Just-in-time manufacturing, 69 L Laboratory accreditation, 51, 80-87   European Union-U.S. negotiations, 132-133   international agreements, 118-119   multiple accreditation, 96   NIST role in, 54, 87

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--> Latin America, 134-137 Legal issues, 35   basis for retaliatory trade action, 124-125   delay of regulatory standards development, 56   manufacturers' declaration of conformity, 68   truth in advertising, 68   voluntary consensus safety standards, 56 Lock-in effects, 44-45 M Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award, 10, 16, 78, 101 n.51 Mandatory standards   definition, 25, 48, 206   voluntary consensus standards overlap, 25, 48-49, 54-57 Manufacturer's declaration of conformity   application, 68-69   in conformity assessment system, 17, 66   definition, 66, 207 Manufacturing Automation Protocol user group, 39 Manufacturing sector   conformity assessment needs, 68-69   historical development of standards, 30   independent third-party assessment, 70, 72   mass production, 14, 15, 30   process standards, 15-16   rationale for consensus standardization, 30-33 Market development   foreign acceptance of U.S. conformity assessment, 97-98   in Indonesia, 141-144   recommendations for, 5-6, 162   U.S. export promotion policy, 140-144 Memorandum of understanding, 59-60 MET Electrical Testing Company, 74 Microsoft Corporation, 31, 32 Model T, 15 MS-DOS operating system, 31, 32 Multinational firms, 105 Mutual recognition agreements   benefits, 4-5, 119   definition, 207   European Union negotiations, 130-134, 147, 160-161   national network, 5, 156-157   priority regions, 134-140, 147, 161   recommendations for, 5, 161   role of, 98, 134, 161 N National Aerospace and Defense Contractors Accreditation Program, 81 National Board of Boiler and Pressure Vessel Inspectors, 74 National Center for Standards and Certification Information, 54 National Conference on Weights and Measures, 54, 75 National Conformity Assessment System Recognition, 2-3, 155, 156 National Economic Council, 122 National Electrical Code, 25, 39, 40 National Fire Prevention Association, 25, 38-39, 40 National Highway and Traffic Safety Administration, 16, 76 National Institute of Standards and Technology, 10, 45   data collection and management, 6-7, 54, 163-164   in dissemination of standards and conformity assessment, 6, 163   Fastener Quality Act, 97, 98   finances, 52, 53   international technical assistance efforts, 5-6, 144-147, 162   National Conference on Weights and Measures, 75   recognition programs, 97-98   recommendations for, 2-4, 5-7, 155-156, 157, 158-159, 162, 163-164   role of, 51, 52, 57-59, 178

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-->   United States Trade Representative and, 54, 123   in voluntary consensus standardization, 52-54 National Standards Systems Network, 45 National Trade Data Bank, 123 National Trade Estimate Report on Foreign Trade Barriers, 108-109 National Voluntary Conformity Assessment System Evaluation, 97-98, 132-133, 156 National Volunteer Laboratory Accreditation Program, 81-87, 96, 178 Nationally Recognized Testing Laboratory program, 96, 157 Naval Facilities Engineering Command, 55-56 Network compatibility standards, 31-32 North American Free Trade Agreement, 126, 170 NSF International, 36, 74 Nuclear Regulatory Commission, 79 O Obsolete standards, 28-29 Occupational Safety and Health Administration, 16, 72, 81, 157 OMB Circular A-119   effectiveness, 57, 158   policy, 55, 56   recommendations, 3, 158 Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, 108 Organizations for standards development   consortia for, 36, 39, 45, 182-183   government funding, 60   industry associations, 37-38   international, 46-47   membership organizations, 38-39   number of standards produced by, 26   private U.S., number of, 33, 36   professional societies for, 36-37   structure and process, 33-35, 60-61   types of, 26, 33, 36   voluntary consensus-building, 23   See also specific organizations P Patents   certification marks, 73   development of consensus standards and, 32-33   international agreements, 151 n.57   technology diffusion and, 14 Performance standards   definition, 206   in OMB Circular A-119, 55 Pharmaceutical industry, 69 Private sector   accreditation programs, 81, 87   certification programs, 73-75   in conformity assessment, recommendations for, 2-3, 4, 155, 158-160   consumption of independent testing services, 72   economic rationale for consensus standardization, 30-33   government recognition of accreditation services, 97-99   government standards development in, 16   international recognition of accreditation services, 119-120, 173   in international technical assistance, 5-6, 146, 162   number of standards in, 19, 26-28   obsolete standards, 29   public-private cooperation in standards development, 57-60, 61, 157 -159, 178-179   standards development mechanisms, 23-24, 25-26   in U.S. international trade policy formulation, 124   See also Voluntary consensus standards Process management, 15-16 Process-oriented regulations, 16 Procurement   consensus standards for, 55-56   Defense Department, 55, 176-177   federal certification programs for, 76   standards for, 11, 20, 25, 48

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--> Product-oriented regulations, 16 Professional certification, 28 Q Quality assurance   definition, 208   process standards, 16   role of, 77 Quality system registration   accreditation, 80-81   application, 78-79   in conformity assessment system, 17, 77, 78, 80   definition, 66, 77, 208   European-U.S. negotiations, 132-133   ISO 9000 and, 77-80, 164, 208   problems, 79-80   registration function, 78   trends, 77, 80 R Recognition   in conformity assessment system, 68, 97   current activities, 97-98   definition, 97, 207   European-U.S. negotiations, 132-133   international trade and, 97-98   National Conformity Assessment System Recognition program, 2-3, 155 -156 Reference standards, 51 Regulatory control   accreditation services in, 81   conformity assessment in, 17   independent testing services in, 72   mandatory standards in, 25   role of, 16   sources of standards for, 16   standards development process, 56   standards for, 48, 61   third-party conformity assessment in, 69-70   U.S. competitiveness and, 1, 2 Retaliatory action   indications for, 134   recommendations, 5, 161   U.S. law, 124-125 S Safety. See Health and safety standards Saudi Arabia, 144-147 Self-certification, 73 Society of Automotive Engineers, 10, 30, 32 Southern Building Code Congress International, 75 Standards   in certification vs. testing, 73   definition, 9, 27, 205   estimated number, 19, 26-28   evaluation of effectiveness of, 10-11, 18-19   excess of, 15   function, 9, 10, 11-17, 65   obsolete, 28-29   for professional certification, 28   quality system registration and, 78   variability in influence of, 28 Standards and conformity assessment system   data collection and analysis, 54   European mechanisms, 32, 127-130, 171-172, 175-176   evaluation criteria, 18-19, 29   GATT agreements, 112-113, 117-121   in Indonesia, 141-144   international trade and, 20-21, 105, 147, 153   international trends, 174-175   as non-tariff trade barrier, 108, 120-121, 171-174   role in government, 20   role of government, 179-181   U.S. economic performance and, 1-2   See also Conformity assessment;   Standards;   Standards development Standards development   accreditation, 40

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-->   canvass method, 42-44   conformity assessment and, 17, 65   current inadequacies, 3, 157-158   economic influence, 18-19   federal government in, 55 good qualities, 3, 61, 157   historical evolution, 29-30   international forums for, 46-47   international technical assistance, 5-6, 21, 104, 141, 143-147, 162   market forces in, 30-33   mechanisms, 9-10, 23-26, 60-61   opportunities for improvement, 61   as public good, 16-17, 31   public-private cooperation, 3-4, 57-60, 61, 157-160   recommendations, 3-4, 157-160   sector diversity, 18, 25, 45   technology for, 45   See also Organizations for standards development State, Department of, 123 State and local government   accreditation programs, 81   consumption of testing services, 72   multiple accreditations, 87, 96, 98-99, 154   number of standards, 29   product certification, 75   for protection of public welfare, 16-17   recommendations for, 3, 156-157   standards development, 25, 51-52 Strategic standardization management, 14 T Technical advisory groups, 36, 46 Technology diffusion   challenges to standardization, 44-45   role of standards in, 11-14 Telecommunications industry, 15, 31, 46, 47, 51, 181-182 Testing   accreditation, 80-81   certification and, 73-74   in conformity assessment system, 17, 66   consumers of services, 72   definition, 72   European-U.S. agreements, 130-132   industry revenue, 118   international harmonization, 106, 118-119   national trends, 71-72   organizations for, 36   potential savings in reform of, 154-155 Timeline   European Union mutual recognition agreement, 161-162   private-sector conformity assessment, 3, 155, 156   standardization of accreditation criteria, 3, 156, 157 Total quality management, 78 Trade Act of 1974, 5, 122, 124-125, 161 Treasury, Department of, 123 Truth in advertising, 68 Typewriter keyboard, 24 U Underwriters Laboratories, 17, 36, 66, 70, 74 United States   consensus standards development in, 32, 33   economic performance, 1-2   evolution of conformity assessment system, 65-66   evolution of standards development, 29-30   export promotion policy, 140-144   international standardization activities, 46-47   international technical assistance efforts, 5-6, 21, 104, 141, 143 -147, 162   international trade and domestic economy, 20, 103, 104-105, 133-134, 160, 169-171   priority trading partners, 134-140   standards and conformity assessment system, evaluation of, 18-19   trade barriers in, 133-134

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-->   trade barriers to, 108-112   trade policy goals, 147-148   trade policy mechanisms, 121-124   See also Federal government;   State and local government United States Testing Company, 74 United States Trade Representative   interagency coordination, 123-124   NIST and, 54, 123   organizational structure, 122-123   private-sector advisory mechanisms, 124   recommendations for, 5, 6-7, 160, 161, 163, 164   responsibility and authority, 121-122   Section 301 authority, 5, 124-125, 161 V Voluntary consensus standards   ANSI role, 39   challenges to development, 44-45   definition, 23, 206   development processes, 33-35   due process in development of, 35, 44, 45   economic rationale, 30-33   federal use of, 54-57, 157-158   influence of, 28   mandatory standards overlap, 9-10, 25, 48-49   NIST in development of, 52-54   number of, 26   public-private cooperation in, 57-60, 61   role of consensus in, 34   for safety, 56-57   sources of, 23, 33   technology development and response time of, 44-45 W Weights and measures, 51, 75, 157 Whitney, Eli, 14 Wood products, 125 World Trade Organization, 7, 21, 103, 113, 164   standing of nongovernmental organizations, 119-120