American Society of Mechanical Engineers v. Hydrolevel Corporation , 35

Anticipatory standards, 44

Antitrust law, 35

Asbestos testing, 87

Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation Forum

  importance of, 117

  mutual recognition agreements, 134-140, 147, 161

  recommendations for, 5, 161

  trade opportunities, 4-5

Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation, 38, 47

Audit of production, 16

Automotive industry, 10, 32

  certification in, 76

  international standards development, 145, 146

  mass production, 14, 15, 30

B

Bandwagon effects, 32, 44-45

Battery sizes, 11

Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, 28, 29, 37, 74-75

Building codes, 16, 39, 51, 75

Building Officials and Code Administrators International, 75

C

Canvass method, 42-44

Certification

  in conformity assessment system, 17, 66

  definition, 66, 206

  European Union-U.S. agreements, 130-132

  function, 72-73

  government programs, 51, 75-77

  intensity of, 73

  international harmonization, 106, 118-119

  opportunities for improvement, 76-77

  organizations for, 36

  private-sector programs, 73-75

  revenue, 73

  testing and, 73-74

Certification mark, 17, 73, 207

Commerce, Department of, 10, 16, 51, 123

Commercial transactions

  differentiation vs. standardization, 15

  quality system registration in, 77

  role of conformity assessment, 17, 66, 68-70

  role of standards, 11, 14-15, 19

Communications and information technology industry, 31-32, 181-183

  challenges to consensus standardization, 44-45

  federal standards development, 51

  international standardization, 46, 47

  role of compatibility standards, 15, 18

Compatibility standards, 18

  challenges to development, 44-45

  definition, 205

  incentives for adoption, 15, 31-32

Competition

  in development of de facto standards, 24, 31-32

  global, 1-2

  standards development and, 14-15

Computer and Business Equipment Manufacturers Association, 34, 37-38

Conformity assessment

  accreditation services in, 17, 68, 80

  Asian-U.S. mutual recognition, 137-140

  certification system, 72-77

  current status, 2, 99, 153-154

  definition, 17, 65, 206

  elements of, 17-18, 66, 154

  European Union mechanisms, 129-130

  evolution of U.S. system, 65-66

  framework, 68-70

  independent laboratory testing services in, 71-72

  international trade and, 106

  as international trade barrier, 109-111, 120-121

  international trends, 118-119



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