American Society of Mechanical Engineers. A founding member of ANSI, ASME is a professional society with an international membership of more than 100,000. It publishes 745 standards. In addition to standards development, ASME is involved in publishing, technical conferences and exhibits, engineering education, government relations, and public education. The ASME Council on Codes and Standards oversees 10 boards that supervise more than 700 committees. Drafts of standards are approved by committees and opened up to public comment after which, if necessary, they are redrafted and published as ASME standards. ASME is well known for its Boiler Code first published in 1914, and most recently revised and published as the Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code in 1992.42

Industry Associations Industry associations, also known as trade associations, are organizations of manufacturers, suppliers, customers, service providers, and other firms active in a given industry sector. Their mission is to further the interests of their industry sector, including the development of technical standards. Many industry associations develop standards or sponsor their development through a subsidiary or associated SDO. Funding is primarily through members' dues. Members of technical committees typically serve as representatives of their firm. Each firm carries equal weight in committee voting, regardless of the number of experts it sends to participate in the committee's standards development work. Industry association SDOs are likely to be more openly responsive to commercial market concerns in their technical decisionmaking than other types of SDOs.

Computer and Business Equipment Manufacturers Association. Accredited Standards Committee X3, Information Processing Systems (ASC X3). Created in 1916, the CBEMA is a professional trade association involved in the information processing, communications, and business products industry sectors. It maintains an ANSI-approved voluntary consensus program and sponsors the ASC X3 Secretariat, which oversees the legal, financial, and procedural work of the committee. The ASC X3 has 41 members including producers and consumers in the information technology industry, and it manages more than 500 projects. ASC X3's Operational Management Committee (formerly, the Standards Planning and Requirements Committee, SPARC) reviews submitted standards proposals and reports on its activities to the ASC X3. A proposal, after receiving X3 approval, is assigned to a technical committee for development into a standard. To complete the consensus process, the draft standard is redrafted, voted on again, and then sent to ANSI for final approval. The Strategic Planning Committee (SPC) manages the standards process and



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