Index

A

Advection length, 20

Agriculture, 31, 32, 39

Algal blooms, 21, 31

Algal symbionts in coral ecosystems, 9, 26, 39

Antarctica, 50

Anthropogenic impacts

  in biodiversity change, 24-25

  classification of, 25

  on coastal habitats, 31-32

  on coastal shelves, 41-42

  on coral reefs, 39

  as critical environmental issues, 24

  in deep sea, 45

  effects of, 5

  in estuaries and bays, 37-38

  habitat type variation, 36-37

  predictive modeling, 22, 23

  research agenda, 2-4, 23, 53, 74

  research methodology, 59-60

  in rocky intertidal zones, 40

  role of taxonomic research, 46

  scales of observation, 20, 35

  in synergistic change processes, 25, 26-27

Aquaculture, 31

Archaea, 9

Arctic region, 50

Association of Marine Laboratories of the Caribbean, 66

Association of Systematics Collection, 70

Asteria amurensis, 33

Australia, 33

Azov Sea, 33

B

Ballast water, species transport in, 7, 32, 33, 37

Baltic Sea, 27, 50

Benthic environments

  anthropogenic impacts, 32

  deep sea, 45

  patch interactions, 17, 18

  protist diversity, 9

  rocky intertidal zones, 40

  scales of observation, 18, 20

  ultraviolet radiation effects, 33

Bering Sea, 41

Biodiversity

  in coral reefs, 38-39

  current knowledge base, 2, 9-11, 68

  deep sea, 44-45

  definition, 1, 8

  ecosystem diversity and, 13

  interactions across scales, 16, 35

  marine vs. terrestrial systems, 15



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--> Index A Advection length, 20 Agriculture, 31, 32, 39 Algal blooms, 21, 31 Algal symbionts in coral ecosystems, 9, 26, 39 Antarctica, 50 Anthropogenic impacts   in biodiversity change, 24-25   classification of, 25   on coastal habitats, 31-32   on coastal shelves, 41-42   on coral reefs, 39   as critical environmental issues, 24   in deep sea, 45   effects of, 5   in estuaries and bays, 37-38   habitat type variation, 36-37   predictive modeling, 22, 23   research agenda, 2-4, 23, 53, 74   research methodology, 59-60   in rocky intertidal zones, 40   role of taxonomic research, 46   scales of observation, 20, 35   in synergistic change processes, 25, 26-27 Aquaculture, 31 Archaea, 9 Arctic region, 50 Association of Marine Laboratories of the Caribbean, 66 Association of Systematics Collection, 70 Asteria amurensis, 33 Australia, 33 Azov Sea, 33 B Ballast water, species transport in, 7, 32, 33, 37 Baltic Sea, 27, 50 Benthic environments   anthropogenic impacts, 32   deep sea, 45   patch interactions, 17, 18   protist diversity, 9   rocky intertidal zones, 40   scales of observation, 18, 20   ultraviolet radiation effects, 33 Bering Sea, 41 Biodiversity   in coral reefs, 38-39   current knowledge base, 2, 9-11, 68   deep sea, 44-45   definition, 1, 8   ecosystem diversity and, 13   interactions across scales, 16, 35   marine vs. terrestrial systems, 15

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-->   microorganisms, 10, 12   pelagic environments, 42-43   recent species identifications, 8-9   regional variation, 50   research questions, 52-53   in rocky intertidal zones, 40-41 Biodiversity change   alterations in physical habitat and, 31-32   anthropogenic activities in, 24-25   appropriate scale of research in, 35-36   chemical pollution and eutrophication in, 1, 25, 30-31   coastal development in, 7   in coastal shelves, 41   contributors to, 1   in coral reefs, 39   effect of scientific activities, 30   in estuaries and bays, 37-38   in experimental settings, 67   fisheries operations in, 28-29   global climate change in, 32-34   increased diversity, 38   mariculture effects, 30   natural events in, 24, 25, 26-27   negative outcomes, 1-2   operational descriptions, 25   regional interactions in, 17, 22   research topics, 49-52   retrospective analysis, 56-59   sampling methods, 63-65   significance of, 51, 52-53, 69   species invasion in, 7   species removal in, 7   synergistic effects, 25, 26-27   taxonomic research, 46, 48   temporal scale considerations, 19-20   tourism effects, 40 Biomass, marine vs. terrestrial, 15 Biomedical science, 11 Black Sea, 33 Blue marlin, 62 Boundary definition   criteria for, 14   habitat patch, 16-17   persistent physical phenomenon in, 19   in regional-scale, 17, 19   for research scales, 20-21, 49   technology development for, 49   temporal features, 19-20 Brine seeps, 2 Bryozoans, 12 C California, 26, 29, 40 California Cooperative Ocean Fisheries Investigations, 58 Capitella ''capitata," 12 Carbon cycle, 71, 73 Caribbean basin, 26, 39, 40 Caribbean star coral, 9, 12 CARICOMP, 66 Chemical pollution and eutrophication   as biodiversity change factor, 1, 25, 30-31   in coral reef loss, 26, 39   in global climate change, 32-33, 34   in seaweed declines, 27   sources of, 30-31 Chesapeake Bay, 5, 27, 28 Chile, 40, 67 Chinese clam, 26, 33, 38 Chlorofluorocarbons, 32 Chlorophyll, marine   effects of species invasion on local levels, 38   sources of, 9 Coastal habitats   anthropogenic impacts, 31-32   commercial fishery effects, 28   continental shelves and slopes, 41-42   coral reefs, 38-39   development effects, 1, 7, 25   estuaries and bays, 37-38   eutrophication of, 31   exotic species invasions, 33   mariculture effects, 30   marine reserve research, 67   as regional-scale systems, 19   temperate zone rocky shores, 40-41 Coelacanth, 30 Committee on Environment and Natural Resources, 73 Communities   in continuum of scales, 18   in metapopulation theory, 17 Connecticut, 7 Continental shelves, 41-42 Coral reefs   algal symbionts in, 9, 26, 39   anthropogenic impacts, 6, 39   biodiversity, 38-39   commercial fishery effects, 28   coral species diversity, 12   core samples, 58

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-->   global climate change and, 39   as research subject, 39   sea urchin communities, 39, 40   sedimentation effects, 31   synergistic effects in threats to, 26   ultraviolet radiation effects, 33 Crassostrea, 13, 27 D Dams, 32 Decadal scale of research agenda, 2, 20, 68 Deep sea   anthropogenic impacts, 45   biodiversity, 44-45   research opportunities in, 45   waste disposal in, 30, 44, 45 Delphinus delphis, 13 Diadema antillarum, 39 Dinoflagellates   as exotic invader, 33   in fish kills, 9 Diversitas program, 70 DNA sequencing, 62 Dolphins   species identification, 13   tuna harvesting and, 29 Dredging, 31, 37 E Ecological research   methodological challenges, 59-60   oceanographic science linkages, 3, 23, 35   regional focus in, 36   in research agenda, 3, 74   taxonomic research and, 47-48, 60, 74 EcoScope, 65 Ecosystem attributes   marine vs. terrestrial, 15   open systems, 14, 15   regional marine systems, 21-22   sampling technology, 63-65   unique features of marine systems, 15 Ecosystem functioning   coastal eutrophication, 31   collapse of, in Florida Bay, 21   in coral reefs, 39   fisheries operations and, 28-29   invasion of exotic species in, 32   marine vs. terrestrial, 15   microbial diversity in, 10-11   in pelagic open ocean, 42-43   regional-scale, 17, 19   research methodology, 59-66   research questions, 52   in rocky intertidal zones, 40-41   scale linkages, 35-36   spatial continuum, 16-19   in substrate-dominated systems, 42-43   synergistic effects in, 26-27   system interactions, 14-15, 22, 40-41 El Niño phenomenon, 22, 58 Endangered species, 25, 65 Environmental Protection Agency, 60 Erosion, 31 Estuaries and bays   anthropogenic impacts in, 37   biodiversity in, 37-38   as research subject, 37-38 Eubacteria, 9 Eulerian motion, 55 Eutrophication. See Chemical pollution and eutrophication Evolutionary processes   retrospective studies, 57   temporal scale, 19-20 Exotic species   as biodiversity change factor, 1, 25, 26, 32, 33   Chinese clam in California, 26, 33   transport in ballast tanks, 7, 32, 33, 37 Extinction of species, 25   retrospective studies, 57, 58 F Federal programs, 71-73 Fertilizers, 31, 39 Finland, 27 Fisheries operations   adaptive studies, 59   as biodiversity change factor, 1, 25   biotic survey data in, 59   by-catch effects, 30   on coastal shelves, 41, 42   coral reefs and, 39, 40   demographics of harvesting, 30   depletion of fishing banks, 6, 28   direct environmental effects, 29-30

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-->   dredging, 31   in estuaries and bays, 37   ghost fishing, 29   historical records, 57   indirect environmental effects, 30   mariculture, 30   in pelagic environments, 42   whale hunting, 6, 29 Fish kills, 9 Florida Bay, 21 Florida Keys, 26 Flow cytometry, 63 Fossil record, 57 Fucus vesiculosus, 27 G Generation time, 20 Genetic change   fishery operations effects, 29   mariculture effects, 30   Microbial Genome Initiative data, 72-73   retrospective analysis, 57   temporal scale, 19-20 Geographical information systems, 64 Geologic time, 19-20 Germany, 27 Global climate change   as biodiversity change factor, 1, 25   causes, 32   evidence in deep sea, 45   research in pelagic systems, 43, 71   threats to coral reefs, 39   ultraviolet radiation effects, 32-34   warming trend, 34 Global Ocean Ecosystem Dynamics, 70-71 Great Lakes, 33 Greenhouse effect, 34 Groupers, 7 Gulf of Maine, 31 Gulf of Mexico, 33, 41 Gyres, 19, 63 H Habitat diversity   in coral reefs, 39   deep sea, 44   mapping, 64   metapopulation concept, 17   patch formation/maintenance, 16-17   potential advances in understanding, 13   in regional model systems, 36-37   research questions, 52   in shelf waters, 42 Halogenated hydrocarbons, 31 Heavy metals, 31 Hydrothermal vents, 2, 47 I International Council of Scientific Unions, 70 International Union of Biological Sciences, 70 International Union of Microbiological Scientists, 70 Iron, 43 J Japanese starfish, 33 Joint Global Ocean Flux Study, 70, 71 K Kemp's ridley sea turtle, 12 L Lagrangian motion, 55 Land reclamation, 31 Larval transport, 20   across regional systems, 22   numerical modeling, 55, 56   in shelf waters, 42 Latimeriea chalumnae, 30 Life history of organisms   fishery operations effects, 29   marine vs. terrestrial predators, 15   in metapopulation models, 56   temporal scale for studying, 20 Lobsters, 22 Local scales   limitations of, 14-16   linkages, 49   research role, 35, 51

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--> M Makira nigricans, 62 Manatees, 7 Mariculture, 30, 32 Marine laboratories, 66 Marine Research Stations Network, 66 Marine reserves, 67 Marine worms, 12-13 Marshes, 37 Maryland, 7 Megaptera noveangliae, 62 Menippe, 13 Metapopulation   concept, 17   in continuum of spatial scales, 18   ecological modeling, 56   ecosystem interactions in, 35, 41 Microbial Genome Initiative, 72-73 Microbial organisms   current understanding of, 10   genetic sequencing, 72-73   in marine ecosystems, 9-11   sampling techniques, 63 Mining, 31, 41, 45 Mnemiopsis leidyi, 33 Molecular genetics   applications, 9, 10, 12, 48, 61, 62   in research agenda objectives, 3, 23   technical development, 61-62 Montastraea annularis. See Caribbean star coral Moored, Automated, Serial Zooplankton Pump, 65 Museum collections, 57, 58 Mussels, 12 Mya arenaria, 38 Mytilus edulis, 12, 48 N National Association of Marine Laboratories, 66 National Biological Service, 72, 73 National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, 72 National Science Foundation, 71-72 North Sea, 31, 50 O Objectives of research agenda, 3-4, 22-23, 52, 68, 74, 75 Oceanographic science   ecological science linkages, 3, 23, 35   numerical modeling, 55-56   scales of observation in, 19, 20, 35-36 Office of Energy Research, 72-73 Office of Naval Research, 72 Oil spills, 41 Olive ridley sea turtle, 12 Oysters   Chesapeake Bay population, 5, 27, 28   species identification, 13 Ozone layer, 32 P Patch formation and maintenance   benthic environments, 17, 18   deep sea, 44   definition, 16-17   metapopulation modeling, 17, 18, 56   pelagic environments, 17, 18   regional dynamics, 17, 18   research technology, 17 Pelagic environments   biodiversity, 42   exotic species invasion, 32   habitat patches in, 17, 18   regional limits, 19   research opportunities, 13, 42-44, 50   research technology, 17   sampling techniques, 63   scales of observation, 18   subsystem diversity, 42-43 Penaeus, 13 Perna perna, 33 Petroleum products, 31, 41 Phytoplankton, 12 Plankton   diversity, 9   ecosystem role, 10   effects of exotic species invasion, 26, 33   flow cytometry studies, 63   in pelagic habitat patches, 17   sampling methods, 64, 65   temporal scales for studying, 20   ultraviolet radiation effects, 32-34

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--> Polar marine systems, 50 Pollution   in deep sea, 45   in pelagic environments, 43-44   See also Chemical pollution and eutrophication Polychlorinated biphenyls, 31 Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, 31 Polymerase chain reaction, 61-62 Potamocorbula amurensis, see Chinese clam Predator communities   in marine ecosystems, 15   in pelagic environment, 43   in rocky intertidal zones, 40 Predictive modeling   advances in, 55-56   of anthropogenic impacts, 22, 23   applications, 56   biological features in, 55-56   development of, 54   of Eulerian motion, 55   inferential methods, 54   of Lagrangian motion, 55   limitations, 54   metapopulation models, 56   numerical models, 55, 56   prospective improvements in, 55-56   as research agenda objective, 3, 8, 23   retrospective data for, 56-57 Prochlorophytes, 9 Prokaryotes, 10 R Radioactive materials, 31 Rapid Sampling Vertical Profiler, 65 Regional-scale   as appropriate research scale, 2-3, 8, 14-16, 21, 22, 35-36, 50   biotic survey, 59   coastal, 19   coordination of research efforts, 69-70   definition, 17   genetic variability research, 62   interactions between regions, 17, 22, 50, 52   limits, 17   local scale studies and, 35, 41   in pelagic environments, 19   potential research risks, 68   types of habitats in research model, 36-37   types of marine systems, 21-22 Research agenda   characteristics, 4, 74, 75   data sets, 68   funding, 68   implementation, 66-68   marine laboratories in, 66   need for, 7-8, 69   objectives, 3-4, 22-23, 52, 68, 74, 75   relationship to other programs, 69-73   scales of observation in, 2-3, 8, 14, 20-21, 35-36, 74   taxonomic research in, 3, 8, 54, 74 Research design   coordination of, in research network, 68   defining scales of observation, 20-21, 49   duration of study, 20   environmental impacts, 30   human exclusion experiments, 67   level of taxonomic investigation, 48   methodological challenges, 59-60   selection of scales of observation, 16, 68 Research instrumentation/data   biotic surveys, 59   data display, 64   innovations, 63   retrospective analysis in, 56-59   sampling, 63-65   taxonomic studies, 60-61 Research questions   alterations in biodiversity patterns, 51   anthropogenic impacts, 53   in Committee on Environment and Natural Resources, 73   conceptual basis of, 54-56   consequences of biodiversity change, 52   in coral reef environments, 39   as critical environmental issues, 24   cross-system effects, 22, 23   in Diversitas program, 70   effects of invasion by exotic species, 32   in estuaries and bays, 37-38   in fisheries management, 59   focus of, 49-50   formulation of, 49   in Global Ocean Ecosystem Dynamics program, 70-71   in Joint Global Ocean Flux Study, 70, 71   in marine reserve research, 67   in National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, 72

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-->   in National Science Foundation programs, 71-72   natural variation in biodiversity pattern, 52-53   in Office of Energy Research, 72-73   in Office of Naval Research, 72   patterns of biodiversity, 50, 50-51   in pelagic environments, 42-44   in shelf waters, 42   special opportunities, 65-66   in temperate zone rocky shores, 40-41 Resource management, 68   adaptive fisheries management, 59   federal programs, 72   as research agenda objective, 4, 23, 74 Retrospective analysis   archival research, 57-59, 58   fossil studies, 57   in research agenda objectives, 3, 23   role of, 56-57, 59 Runoff effects, 39 S Salmon, 32 Sampling methods   acoustic, 64, 65   deep sea, 45   innovations, 63-65, 64   limitations, 54   in pelagic environment, 17   real-time surveys, 63   remote sensing, 63-65   in research agenda objectives, 3, 23   RNA probes, 63   in taxonomic research, 60 San Francisco Bay, 26, 33, 38 Scientific Committee on Problems of the Environment, 70 Scomberomerus maculatus. See Spanish mackerel Seaweeds, 13, 27, 30 Sedimentation, 31, 39   core samples, 58 Shrimp, 13 Sites   communities in, 17, 18   in continuum of scales, 18   interactions across, 35   patch habitats in, 17, 18   in regional systems, 17, 18, 21 Southern Association of Marine Laboratories, 66 Spanish mackerel, 13 Spatial scales   boundary definition criteria, 14   continuum, 16-19   deep-sea research, 44-45   defining regional systems, 17, 19, 49   interactions across, 16   in metapopulation dynamics, 17   in pelagic environment, 17   in research agenda, 2-3, 14   research infrastructure, 66   retrospective analysis of species richness in, 56-57   temporal scale correspondence, 20   See also Regional-scale Species identification, 49   current knowledge base, 9-10, 60   ecologist-taxonomist collaborations, 48   molecular genetics in, 10, 12, 62   recent advances, 8-9, 11-13   research instrumentation, 63   research role, 10-11, 46, 60 Species removal   ecosystem alteration in, 7   extinction, 25, 57, 58   fisheries operations in, 28-29   fossil evidence, 57   in rocky intertidal zones, 40 Steller sea lion, 41 Sweden, 27 Synergistic effects, 25, 26-27 Systematics, 48   in research agenda, 4, 8   See also Taxonomic research Systematics Agenda 2000, 70 T Taxonomic research   current knowledge base, 8-11, 60   ecological research and, 47-48, 60, 61, 74   errors in, 47, 54, 61   level of investigation, 48   in marine vs. terrestrial systems, 15   methodology, 60-61   practitioners, 46-47, 47   professional development, 3, 70   recent advances, 11-13   in research agenda, 3, 4, 8, 46, 54, 60, 74

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-->   research resources, 60-61   temporal scales in, 19   unique phyla in, 15 Technology development   data display systems, 64   molecular genetics, 61-62   as research agenda objective, 3, 23   for research in pelagic systems, 17   research instrumentation, 63   sampling methods, 63-65   taxonomic classification, 61 Temperate zone rocky shores, 40-41 Temporal scales   boundary definition criteria, 14   continuum, 19-20   in defining regional systems, 19, 49   historical studies, 57   in metapopulation dynamics, 17   of pelagic ecosystems, 43   in research agenda, 2-3, 14   spatial scale correspondence, 20 Terrestrial ecosystems   marine ecosystems vs., 15   relevance of marine research, 51 Threshold effects   in metapopulation modeling, 56   as research objective, 3, 23 Tidal mixing fronts, 19 Tourism, 40 Training in taxonomic science, 3, 23, 47, 60 Trophic systems   commercial fishery effects, 28   deep sea, 45   effects of species invasion, 7, 26   effects of species removal, 7   marine vs. terrestrial systems, 15 Tuna fisheries, 29 Turtles, 7, 12 U Ultraviolet radiation, 1, 32-34, 43 Unique phyla, 15 United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, 70 Upwelling fronts, 19 V Video Plankton Recorder, 65 Volcanic eruptions, 32 W Warm-core rings, 19 Washington, 7 Waste disposal   deep-sea, 30, 44, 45   in estuaries and bays, 37   as threat to coral reefs, 39 Water motion, 14   artificial coastal structures and, 31   in interactions between regional systems, 22   persistent phenomenon in defining system boundaries, 19   regional-scale systems, 17, 19   research instrumentation, 63 Wetland losses, 7 Whales   carcasses of, 2, 6   historical records, 57   humpback, genetic diversity in, 12, 62   hunting of, 6, 29 Wood debris, 2 Z Zebra mussels, 33