Appendixes



The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement



Below are the first 10 and last 10 pages of uncorrected machine-read text (when available) of this chapter, followed by the top 30 algorithmically extracted key phrases from the chapter as a whole.
Intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text on the opening pages of each chapter. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

Do not use for reproduction, copying, pasting, or reading; exclusively for search engines.

OCR for page 95
--> Appendixes

OCR for page 95
This page in the original is blank.

OCR for page 95
--> Appendix A Workshop Agenda BIOLOGICAL DIVERSITY IN MARINE SYSTEMS May 24–26, 1994 NAS/NAE Arnold and Mabel Beckman Center Irvine, CA Tuesday, May 24, 1994 Remarks from Co-Chairs and National Research Council Ocean Studies Board and the Board on Biology Introduction of Participants Presentation of Workshop Structure The Focus (S. Palumbi) Environmental Questions/Regional-Scale Approaches (J. Jackson) Issues in Taxonomy (L. Watling) Open Discussion Charge to Working Groups (C.A. Butman and J. Carlton) *Working Groups: (A) Identification of Critical Environmental Issues Reconvene: Working Group Reports (10 minutes each) Open Discussion Working Group A: Synthesis and Discussion (C.A. Butman and J. Carlton) *Working Groups: (B) Identify Representative Regional-Scale Systems Reconvene: Working Group Reports Open Discussion and Synthesis Adjourn *   Three working groups of 16 scientists each.

OCR for page 95
--> Wednesday, May 25, 1994 Working Group B: Synthesis and Discussion (C.A. Butman and J. Carlton) *Working Groups: (C) Specific Biodiversity Research Questions Reconvene: Working Group Reports Open Discussion Working Group C: Synthesis and Discussion (C.A. Butman and J. Carlton) **Concurrent Working Groups: (D) Taxonomy, (E) Methods and Techniques Reconvene: Working Group Reports Open Discussion Thursday, May 26,1994 Working Groups D and E: Synthesis and Discussion (C.A. Butman and J. Carlton) **Concurrent Working Groups: (F) Logistics and Coordination, (G) Products and Information Dissemination Reconvene: Working Group Reports Open Discussion Presentation and Discussion of Research Initiative (includes synthesis of Working Groups F and G) Federal Agency Perspectives Closing Remarks (Co-Chairs and National Research Council Ocean Studies Board/Board on Biology) Adjourn Workshop *   Three working groups of 16 scientists each. **   Four concurrent working groups of 12 scientists each.

OCR for page 95
--> Appendix B Workshop Participants BIOLOGICAL DIVERSITY IN MARINE SYSTEMS May 24–26, 1994 NAS/NAE Arnold and Mabel Beckman Center Irvine, CA Committee Members Cheryl Ann Butman, Co-Chair, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution James Carlton, Co-Chair, Williams College—Mystic Seaport George Boehlert, NOAA/NMFS, Southwest Fisheries Science Center Susan Brawley, University of Maine Edward DeLong, University of California—Santa Barbara J. Frederick Grassle, Rutgers University Jeremy Jackson, Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute Simon Levin,* Princeton University Arthur Nowell,* University of Washington Robert Paine, University of Washington Stephen Palumbi, University of Hawaii Geerat Vermeij,* University of California—Davis Les Watling, University of Maine Scientific Participants Mark Abbott, Oregon State University Robert Andersen, Bigelow Laboratory for Ocean Sciences Karl Banse, University of Washington Mark Bertness, Brown University Martin Buzas, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution Robert Carney, Louisiana State University/Coastal Ecology Institute *   Unable to attend workshop

OCR for page 95
--> Sallie (Penny) Chisholm, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Jeremy Collie, University of Rhode Island Dan Costa, University of California—Santa Cruz Mike Dagg, Louisiana Universities Marine Consortium Jonathan Geller, University of North Carolina—Wilmington W. Rockwell (Rocky) Geyer, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution Richard Grosberg, University of California—Davis Loren Haury, Scripps Institution of Oceanography Mark Hay, University of North Carolina—Chapel Hill James Hollibaugh, Tiburon Center—San Francisco State University Nancy Knowlton, Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute Thomas Kocher, University of Delaware Rikk Kvitek, Moss Landing Marine Laboratories Jane Lubchenco, Oregon State University Laurence Madin, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution Mark Ohman, Scripps Institution of Oceanography Jeanine Olsen, University of Groningen, The Netherlands Charles (Pete) Peterson, University of North Carolina—Chapel Hill Thomas Powell, University of California—Davis James Quinn, University of California—Davis Leslie Rosenfeld, Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute Carl Safina, National Audubon Society Thomas Schmidt, Michigan State University Theodore Smayda, University of Rhode Island Diane Stoecker, University of Maryland—Horn Point Laboratories David Thistle, Florida State University Elizabeth Venrick, Scripps Institution of Oceanography Susan Williams, San Diego State University Anne Michelle Wood, University of Oregon Federal Agency Representatives Randall Alberte, Office of Naval Research Peter Barile, National Science Foundation Roger Griffis, NOAA, Office of the Chief Scientist Aleta Hohn, NOAA, National Marine Fisheries Service Steve Jameson,* NOAA, Office of Resources, Conservation, and Assessment Michael Sissenwine, NOAA, National Marine Fisheries Service Phillip Taylor, National Science Foundation Donna Turgeon, NOAA, Office of Resources, Conservation, and Assessment Donna Wieting, NOAA, Office of the Chief Scientist *   Also representing the National Biological Service.

OCR for page 95
--> Scientific Press Marguerite Holloway, Scientific American NRC Eric Fischer, Board on Biology Morgan Gopnik, Commission on Geosciences, Environment, and Resources Mary Hope Katsouros, Ocean Studies Board LaVoncyé Mallory, Ocean Studies Board Mary Pechacek, Ocean Studies Board David Wilmot, Ocean Studies Board

OCR for page 95
--> Appendix C Acronyms AID Agency for International Development AMLC Association of Marine Laboratories of the Caribbean ASC Association of Systematics Collections BB Board on Biology CalCOFI California Cooperative Ocean Fisheries Investigations CARICOMP Caribbean Coastal Marine Productivity CENR Committee on Environment and Natural Resources EPA Environmental Protection Agency GESAMP Group of Experts on the Scientific Aspects of Marine Pollution GIS Geographical Information Systems GLOBEC Global Ocean Ecosystem Dynamics ICSU International Council of Scientific Unions IUBS International Union of Biological Sciences IUMS International Union of Microbiological Sciences JGOFS Joint Global Ocean Flux Study MARS Marine Research Stations Network MASZP Moored, Automated, Serial Zooplankton Pump MGI Microbial Genome Initiative NAML National Association of Marine Laboratories NAS National Academy of Sciences NBS National Biological Service NIH National Institutes of Health NMFS National Marine Fisheries Service

OCR for page 95
--> NOAA National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration NRC National Research Council NSF National Science Foundation NSTC National Science and Technology Council OMP Ocean Margins Program OSB Ocean Studies Board PAHs polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons PCBs polychlorinated biphenols PCR polymerase chain reaction RSVP Rapid Sampling Vertical Profiler SAML Southern Association of Marine Laboratories SCOPE Scientific Committee on Problems of the Environment UCAR University Corporation for Atmospheric Research UNESCO United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization VPR Video Plankton Recorder WCMC World Conservation Monitoring Center

OCR for page 95
--> Appendix D Glossary A algal symbiont see zooxanthellae anadromous referring to the annual migratory behavior of adult fish (such as salmon, shad, striped bass, and lamprey) from the ocean into freshwater rivers and lakes in order to spawn anoxia the absence of oxygen in water and sediments B benthic living on or in the bottom (in contrast to pelagic) biota all of the living organisms (plants, animals, protists, fungi, and so on) in a given region C chemoautotrophic referring to the ability to obtain energy through chemosynthesis, i.e., the oxidation of simple compounds (oxidation is a chemical reaction in which oxygen is gained, or hydrogen or electrons are lost, from a compound) D dinoflagellate a microscopic plant, characterized by having two lash-like structures (flagella) used for locomotion, often abundant in the open ocean; many produce light and are one of the primary contributors to bioluminescence in the ocean. Some dinoflagellates, known as zooxanthellae, are symbiotic in the tissues of corals and other tropical organisms E epipelagic referring to the top 200 meters of the ocean eutrophication nutrient enrichment, typically in the form of nitrates and phosphates, often from human sources such as agriculture, sewage, and urban runoff G gyre a circular system of water movement H hydrothermal vent an opening in the deep-sea floor out of which rises water that has been heated by contact with molten rock; this water is often rich in

OCR for page 95
--> dissolved compounds, such as hydrogen sulfide, which are the primary source of energy for the chemoautotrophic bacteria that form the base of vent community food webs hypoxia low concentrations of oxygen in water and sediments L littoral the ocean shore, including the rocky intertidal, sandy beaches, and salt marshes M mariculture the growing of marine animals and plants under specialized culture conditions mesopelagic referring to depths between 200 to 1,000 meters in the ocean N nekton swimming organisms that are able to move independently of water currents (as opposed to plankton). These include most fish, mammals, turtles, sea snakes, and aquatic birds. O oligonucleotide a few nucleotides joined together; a nucleotide is a compound formed of one molecule each of a sugar, of phosphoric acid, and of a base containing nitrogen. The nucleic acids DNA and RNA are molecules made of a large number of nucleotides. oligotrophic low in nutrients and in primary production P pelagic living in the water column (in contrast to benthic) photosynthesis chemical reactions in plants and plant-like organisms whereby the sun's energy is absorbed by the green pigment chlorophyll, permitting carbon dioxide and water to be synthesized into carbohydrates accompanied by the release of water and oxygen picoplankton planktonic organisms ranging in size from 0.2 to 2.0 micrometers (there are 1,000 micrometers in one millimeter, and 25.4 millimeters in one inch) plankton floating and drifting organisms that have limited swimming abilities and that are carried largely passively with water currents (as opposed to nekton). These include bacteria (bacterioplankton), plants and plant-like organisms (phytoplankton) and the animals (zooplankton) that eat them. polythetic classification of organisms based upon a combination of a large number of characteristics, not all of which are possessed by every member of the group prochlorophyte bacteria that are the smallest photosynthetic cells (less than one micrometer; see picoplankton) in the open ocean; nearly ubiquitous in the sea prokaryote an organism whose DNA is a strand within the cell, and is not contained within a nucleus; bacteria and blue-green algae are prokaryotes propagule a dispersal stage of a plant or animal, such as fertilized eggs, larvae, or seeds protogynous hermaphroditism a sexual condition in which female organs or gametes develop first, followed by the development of male organs or gametes, in the same individual

OCR for page 95
--> S stability the ability of a given assemblage of organisms to withstand disturbance without a major change in the number of species or individuals T trophic referring to the nutrients available to and used within a population, community, or ecosystem U ultraviolet radiation radiation beyond the violet (high energy) end of the visible light spectrum. UV-B is the middle range wave-length of the three UV bands, and is largely absorbed in the Earth's atmospheric ozone layer; prolonged exposure to UV-B can be biologically damaging. Z zooxanthellae symbiotic dinoflagellates in corals and other organisms