TABLE 2.1

Time Line of Selected Dates in Dentistry and Dental Education

1530

First textbook on dentistry published in Leipzig

1683

Van Leeuwenhoek identified microorganisms in material scraped from teeth

1728

Fauchard's comprehensive dental textbook published in France, noted need for school of surgery to include dentistry

1765

First U.S. medical school founded in Philadelphia (later became the University of Pennsylvania)

1801

First American book on dentistry published

1839

Journal of Dental Science initiated, first national dental journal (discontinued in 1860)

1840

First American dental school founded in Baltimore by four physicians

1840

First national dental organization founded (disbanded in 1850s following split over safety of mercury in amalgams, the so-called amalgam wars)

1844

Effectiveness of nitrous oxide as dental anesthetic demonstrated

1859

American Dental Association (ADA) created

1860

Four U.S. dental schools in existence

1867

Harvard started first university-based dental department in close association with medical department

1868

Kentucky, New York, and Ohio passed first effective dental licensing laws and created first dental examiner boards with power to license graduates of reputable schools

1870

Fifteen percent of dentists held dental school diplomas

1872

Practical dental drilling engine invented

1882

ADA offered prize for paper on etiology of caries

1884

National Association of Dental Faculties established to encourage standardization of curricula

1884

Dental school established at Howard University

1891

Data published indicating infectious basis of tooth decay

1891

Two-year dental school curriculum required by dental faculties association

1894

University of Michigan offered first graduate courses in dentistry

1896

Use of X rays (discovered in 1895) first promoted in dentistry

1899

Dental licensure requirements adopted by all states

1902

U.S. Public Health Service (PHS) published its first article on dentistry (observations linking mottled teeth to drinking water)

1905

National Board of Dental Examiners published percentage of graduates of schools who failed licensing examinations

1906

First dental hygienist trained

1906

First public school-based dental assessment funded in Rochester, New York

1909

Dental Educational Council Of America established by national organizations of dental examiners, dental faculties, and dental practitioners

1910

Novocaine introduced in the United States

1910

Publication of Abraham Flexner's report on medical education

1910

Graduation from high school established as prerequisite for dental school admission

1911

Army Dental Corps established



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