BIOGRAPHICAL INFORMATION

Committee Members

WILLIAM SCHOWALTER (Chairman) is dean of the College of Engineering at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. He earned a B.S. from the University of Wisconsin and an M.S. and a Ph.D from the University of Illinois. He has been a member of the National Academy of Engineering since 1982 and has participated in a number of NAE activities, including the Panel on Engineering Research Centers, the Academic Advisory Board, Awards Committee, and the Committee on Membership.

DANIEL C. DRUCKER is emeritus professor of aerospace engineering, mechanics, and engineering science at the University of Florida at Gainesville. Before joining the University of Florida, he was dean of the College of Engineering at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign from 1968 to 1984. Prior to this, Dr. Drucker served on the engineering faculty at Brown University for 21 years. He earned his B.S., C.E., and Ph.D. degrees from Columbia University. Dr. Drucker has been a member of the National Academy of Engineering since 1967.

ALEXANDER FLAX is a senior fellow at the National Academy of Engineering. From 1963 to 1969, he was assistant secretary of the Air Force for R&D, and from 1965 to 1969, he also held the post of director, National Reconnaissance Office. In 1969. Dr. Flax joined the Institute for Defense Analyses and became its president that same year, serving in that position until 1983. He earned a bachelor's degree from the Guggenheim School of



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Forces Shaping the U.S. Academic Engineering Research Enterprise BIOGRAPHICAL INFORMATION Committee Members WILLIAM SCHOWALTER (Chairman) is dean of the College of Engineering at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. He earned a B.S. from the University of Wisconsin and an M.S. and a Ph.D from the University of Illinois. He has been a member of the National Academy of Engineering since 1982 and has participated in a number of NAE activities, including the Panel on Engineering Research Centers, the Academic Advisory Board, Awards Committee, and the Committee on Membership. DANIEL C. DRUCKER is emeritus professor of aerospace engineering, mechanics, and engineering science at the University of Florida at Gainesville. Before joining the University of Florida, he was dean of the College of Engineering at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign from 1968 to 1984. Prior to this, Dr. Drucker served on the engineering faculty at Brown University for 21 years. He earned his B.S., C.E., and Ph.D. degrees from Columbia University. Dr. Drucker has been a member of the National Academy of Engineering since 1967. ALEXANDER FLAX is a senior fellow at the National Academy of Engineering. From 1963 to 1969, he was assistant secretary of the Air Force for R&D, and from 1965 to 1969, he also held the post of director, National Reconnaissance Office. In 1969. Dr. Flax joined the Institute for Defense Analyses and became its president that same year, serving in that position until 1983. He earned a bachelor's degree from the Guggenheim School of

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Forces Shaping the U.S. Academic Engineering Research Enterprise Aeronautics of New York University, and a Ph.D. from the University of Buffalo. Dr. Flax has been a member of the National Academy of Engineering since 1967 and served as the NAE Home Secretary from 1984 to 1992. WILLIAM C. GEAR is president of NEC Research Institute in Princeton, New Jersey. Dr. Gear began his career as an engineer at IBM British Laboratories in Hurselyat. He was a professor of computer science and applied mathematics at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign from 1962 to 1985. In 1985, he was named head of the university's computer science department. He earned an M.S. and a Ph.D. from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign and an M.A. and a B.A. from Cambridge University in England. He has been a member of the National Academy of Engineering since 1992. PAUL C. JENNINGS is vice president and provost as well as professor of civil engineering and applied mechanics at the California Institute of Technology. Prior to becoming vice president and provost in 1989, Dr. Jennings was the chairman of the division of engineering and applied science at Cal Tech and has been a professor at that institution since 1966. He earned a B.S. from Colorado State University and an M.S. and a Ph.D. from Cal Tech. Dr. Jennings has been a member of the National Academy of Engineering since 1977. RICHARD SEEBASS is professor of aerospace engineering sciences at the University of Colorado in Boulder. From 1981 to 1994, he was the dean of the College of Engineering and Applied Science at the University of Colorado. From 1958 to 1977, Dr. Seebass was a professor of mechanical and aerospace engineering at Cornell University. He earned a B.S.E. and an M.S.E. from Princeton University and a Ph.D. from Cornell University. He has been a member of the National Academy of Engineering since 1985. JOHN A. WHITE is dean of the College of Engineering at Georgia Tech and has been a member of the Georgia Tech faculty since 1975. From 1988 to 1991, he served as assistant director for engineering at the National Science Foundation. Dr. White earned a Ph.D. from Ohio State University, an M.S.I.E. from Virginia Polytechnic Institute, and a B.S.I.E. from the University of Arkansas. He has been a member of the National Academy of Engineering since 1987. SPEAKERS DUANE A. ADAMS serves as the deputy director of the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA). Before coming to ARPA in 1992, Dr. Adams was the associate dean of research at the School of Computer Science at Carnegie Mellon University (CMU). Prior to joining the CMU faculty, Dr. Adams served for 20 years in the Air Force. He earned a B.A. from the University of Montana, an M.A. from the University of California, Berkeley, and a Ph.D. from Stanford University.

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Forces Shaping the U.S. Academic Engineering Research Enterprise JOHN A. ARMSTRONG, retired vice president for science and technology at IBM Corporation, was the 1993–94 Karl Taylor Compton Lecturer at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and is visiting professor of electrical engineering and computer science at the University of Virginia in Charlottesville. He received A.B. and Ph.D. degrees from Harvard College and joined IBM in 1963 as a member of the firm's research staff. In 1986, Dr. Armstrong was named IBM's director of research. He became an IBM vice president in 1987 and was elected a member of the Corporate Management Board in 1989. He retired from IBM in 1993. Dr. Armstrong is a member of the National Academy of Engineering and of the Royal Swedish Academy of Engineering Sciences. NEAL F. LANE began his 6-year term as director of the National Science Foundation (NSF) in October 1993. Before assuming that position, Dr. Lane was provost and professor of physics at Rice University, a position he had held since 1986. His tenure at Rice began in 1966, when he joined the department of physics as an assistant professor. Dr. Lane has also served briefly as chancellor of the University of Colorado at Colorado Springs and as director of the division of physics at the NSF. He is widely recognized as a scientist and an educator, having served as president of Sigma Xi and twice receiving Rice University's George R. Brown Prize for Superior Teaching. Dr. Lane holds B.S., MS., and Ph.D. degrees from the University of Oklahoma. SIMON OSTRACH serves as the home secretary of the National Academy of Engineering and since 1970 has been the Wilbert J. Austin Distinguished Professor of Engineering at Case Western Reserve University. From 1950 to 1960. Dr. Ostrach was the chief of the fluid physics branch at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Dr. Ostrach earned a B.S. and an M.E. from the University of Rhode Island and a Sc.M. and a Ph.D. from Brown University. Dr. Ostrach received an honorary D.Sc. Technion from Israel Institute of Technology and an honorary D.Eng. from Florida State University. Dr. Ostrach has been a member of the National Academy of Engineering since 1978. CHANG-LIN TIEN is chancellor and A. Martin Berlin Professor at the University of California, Berkeley. Dr. Tien joined the Berkeley faculty in 1959 as an acting assistant professor of mechanical engineering. He later became a full professor and chairman of the department and was for 2 years Berkeley's vice chancellor for research. In 1990, he became Berkeley's seventh chancellor, the first Asian-American to head a major U.S. research university. In 1962, at age 26, he became the youngest professor to win Berkeley's Distinguished Teaching Award. He earned an M.A. at the University of Louisville and an M.A. and a Ph.D. at Princeton University. He has been a member of the National Academy of Engineering since 1976.